Saudi Arabian Airlines, is the national airline of Saudi Arabia. The carrier’s is headquartered at King Abdul-Aziz International Airport. King Fahd International Airport and King Khalid International Airport serves as the subsidiary centers. The carrier is the third-largest in the Middle East after Qatar and Emirates Airways. It runs domestic as well as international paths to over 85 terminuses around the world. Domestic and international charter flights are operated, commonly during the Hajj and Ramadan period.
The air transport business has advanced quickly over the past ten decades and has turn out to be an significant international economic area. From the 1950s, to now the Operations Research (OR) subject took a vital part in assisting the airline business and its structure to run efficiently and maintain a high-profit rate. Even though there is high research production on aviation administration, there is an absence of convenient and precise arrangements on the materials recently issued by leading OR periodicals. In this research, we try to close the gap by offering a recent complete literature review on aviation arrangement and scheduling.
In order to form and analyze these study notions, we look into scheduling through applying different airline schedule models. The main input of such a literature review and arrangement is to inspire the investigators and specialists in airplane management to create more realistic, applicable, and inclusive OR methodologies that are mainly linked with the air travel industry.
The main factors that may impact the airline services take account of inflight services, pricing plans, seating density as well as timetables. The commercial airline schedules try to approximate prospect demand for the businesses’ merchandise for specific time. And so, the timetables arrangement procedure is always formed in a way to please numerous conflicting ideas. The schedules organizers may have to face internal as well as external restraints. Therefore, the schedules arrangement cycle is commenced 6-9 months before the schedule is needed for a specific time. Throughout this time, the airplanes may create develop precise route patterns that need to agree with the operational and strategic plans, and with the plane’s schedules( Damanhori,2013).
The underlying scheduling aims include productivity of the human resources; client satisfaction; high airplane use; high frequency; high load factors, expansion of connections. The schedules plan needs to satisfy the desires of the numerous marketplace sectors which the air company targets. Hence, the timetables planners need data on their aircraft clients’ conduct( Damanhori,2013). They can get this information from numerous sources, including; historic data from administration subdivision; data from marketing and reservations agents, as well as from the aircraft’s marketing study sector. The schedules organizer needs to apply these data to obtain the passengers’ inclinations and needs. Therefore, the schedules strategy tries to satisfy travelers with time, the day, the rate of recurrence with which aircraft operate. The timetables organizers needs to ensure that team numbers have specific needs for every shift. Their goal is to cut the case the highs and lows in staff requirements, for the aircraft offer a reliable service. Incase a timetables plan is well-organized, it will lead to lower employment expenditures(Ackert,2012). The extra workforce who are operating in specific shifts in the holidays or weekends will usually get extra allowances, no matter the level of work. Nonetheless, the operational as well as technical areas usually need a low workforce level for each shift. The schedules organizer must work towards bringing competence in their work so that the workforce is not under-used. This applies to numerous regions in the air company, including the giving duties to cockpit crews, cabin crew, maintenance, and engineering team (Ackert,2012).
This chapter will highlight Saudi Airline and Middle East aviation sector. Additionally, this section will also analyze the development curve of Saudi Airlines by observing its current as well as past activities.
Middle East Aviation Industry
The Middle East aviation industry is gradually growing. The traveler growth rate for the Middle East was 7% by 2008.Additionally; it has been estimated that the air travel sector in the Gulf Region will rise by approximately 4.9% per year. The predicted size of the overall commercial aviation industry in the Gulf Corporation Council (GCC) will be 383 million passengers by 2034. These passengers mostly avail themselves of aviation services from the ‘Big Four’ airlines operating in the Gulf region, namely Saudi Arabian Airlines, Emirates Airlines, Etihad Airways and Qatar Airlines (Al-Medabesh, A., & Ali,2014).
Saudi Airline domestic market share
Saudi Arabia’s traffic grew by 8% (35.5 million passengers) in the year 2017. The amount in line with the total 8% development for Saudi Arabia’s airports. Saudi Arabia’s ambitious growth plan should allow the main brand to continue growing at a rate similar to that of the overall Saudi Arabian market(Ackert,2012).
Saudi Airlines has made a massive fleet expansion to house the increasing air cargo services segment and to meet the yearly growing number of travelers traveling in Saudi Arabia.
Furthermore, Saudi Airlines has started to offer private jet operations to meet the rising customers’ demand in the private flight segment. To improve its size for the most popular operations and routes, Saudi Airlines one of the first carrier firms to get the Airbus wide-body A330-300 airplane in the Middle East, which has been advantageous, because the airline can serve short-range air travel more successfully. The airline fleet has been given below in detail.
Saudia’s national development in the year 2017 and 2018 which is much lower than the global marketplace. Its domestic traffic went up by 3% in the year 2017 and global traffic increased by 14%. Saudi Airlines reported 4% domestic passenger growth and 12% international travel growth. On the other hand, Saudi Airline company has been growing rapidly domestically,this was fueled by the cooperation with flyadeal company (Alharthi,2014).
The local marketplace accounts for approximately 1/3 of overall seat spaces in Saudi Arabia. Presently there are roughly 640,000 national weekly seats and the 1.4 million scheduled international seats, that’s according to OAG.
Religious Tourism in Saudi Arabia
Every Muslim is advised to visit Mecca and Medina in their lifetime. Therefore, in the course of the Hajj season, a high volume of people from over 183 nations travel to the kingdom for prayer. The Hajj,( “pilgrimage” ) usually takes place for five days during the Hijri calendar. Muslims are visit the holy places during the Hajj. Another vital spiritual responsibility is the Omrah, it is however not restricted to a precise timeframe. However, the numbers of visitors are exactingly measured and organized due to the inadequate size of the holy places(Al-Medabesh, A., & Ali,2014).
The Saudi government prides is proud of serving all Muslims communities around the globe which also grow their country. This provides the Saudi Arabian Airlines with a competitive edge in offering services to religious tourists through air travel(Alharthi,2014).
Saudi Airlines company has also offered praying zones in its airplanes. The praying zone has a positive effect on Saudi Airline’s brand, as Muslim passengers from around the globe would choose Saudi Airlines unique services which most major air companies, including Emirates Carriers, are not capable of delivering to their Muslim customers( Damanhori,2013).
Hence, there is a high probability of Muslims travelers using Saudi Airlines due to its convenience, which translates to bigger income. The c Mecca and Medina attract Muslims from all around the world. There is about 1.6 billion Muslims community and it is required that they visit Mecca in their lifetime financially able and fit to travel(Alharthi,2014).
Saudi Arabia is growing construction to house and offer facilities to the biggest possible figure of guests to the divine metropolises. Mecca city is being reconstructed around the mountains surrounding it. The developments are projected to expand from 12 million guests to 17 million by 2025.
Another type of support which the government offers is the expand the ease of travel is preparing Jeddah Airport’s procedures with advanced facilities as well as systems that allow it to offer services to the growing visitors as a result of the planned expansion. There are also numerous external factors that are accessible to the government which assists indirectly in the development of the aviation division (Al-Medabesh, A., & Ali,2014).
The Saudi government has intended to put funds to attune of $30 billion for airport and railway by the end of 2019.Another city is known as, Rabigh, is also receiving massive growth.It 48 miles from Jeddah city and is anticipated to bring foreign funds and a high air traffic to the western region of the country. Jeddah will have an expansive largest, modern and most well-resourced airports, once King Abdul-Aziz International Airport is finished(Ministry of Finance Saudi Arabia, 2015).
The King Abdul-Aziz International airport will host commercial and religious guests since it links business passengers from Rabgh to Jeddah and religious passengers to Mecca and Medina. The newly built airport terminal in Jeddah is vital for Saudi airline, it will promote is growth. Saudi Airlines makes Jeddah city the ideal site for a center for long-haul links flights to the Asia region and other parts of the world (Alharthi,2014).
The airline takes advantage of the solid relationship between Islam and the aviation industry due to the pilgrimage holiday business. This has made it possible for transiting passengers who have a plan of visiting Mecca. The visit to the religion side can only take 5 hours this helps the Saudi airline to expand and get high revenue from religious tourism.
Overcapacity is a problem
The newly built Jeddah terminal also unveils openings for different airlines in the kingdom as well as foreign carriers. The rivalry is naturally expanding as demand rises and as the marketplace liberalizes. Though, the quick growth of both the Saudia Group as well as private carriers can result in overcapacity. All five local carriers have an ambitious expansion strategy which, if executed, will lead to the doubling of fleet number in the next few years ( Damanhori,2013).
The yields in the domestic market were already under pressure and that consolidation was likely(Alharthi,2014). The Saudi airline Subsidiary flyadeal is currently assessing proposals from Airbus and Boeing for 30 firms narrow-body airplanes. Flyadeal has planned to have 20 airplanes before 2020 and the firm already looking into a potential widebody procurement which can further complicate air traffic problems.
The Scheduling Process
The carrier’s fleet number controls the scheduling. The schedules planners need to make sure that the given number of the airplane is programmed on the carrier’s system, in a way will assist their carrier to attain its overall aims. When the scheduling procedure has been finalized; the actual traveling dates method and the organization are transferred to the carriers’ operational sections.
The departments put the timetable into action. Consequently, the scheduling process is an integral incepted in the prosperous operation of the airplane. It has a huge effect on different departments. The plan needs are accurate since the carrier can never under / over-estimate its airplane’s supplies. Incase it under-estimates the company’s supplies, the carrier will not schedule adequate air travel and will be not capable to operate the flights which are being required by target clients. On the other hand, if the carrier over-estimates its airplane’s desires, it will possibly schedule a lot of flights that will lead to the under-usage of its airplanes. This will eventually lead to significant financial losses to the company. Because of explanations, the scheduling officers need to always cooperate with various departments. Noticeably, every department within the air company must be incorporated in the scheduling procedures as their participation would expand the scheduling procedure and the carrier’s processes. The carrier sections which must be incorporated in the scheduling decisions can include; fleet planning, corporate planning; sales; marketing; product creation; catering; cargo; ground activities and staff employment. The marketing section will make sure that the carrier timetable will meet the clients’ outlooks.
Scheduling Restraints and challenges
The outward restraints include; night curfews, , slot problems, pool agreements, industry regulations , and peak additional charge. Whereas, the inward restraints include; standby arrangements, maintenance requirements, and general operational needs.
Numerous airports are more and more experiencing overcrowding complications. Frequently, the capacity of air traffic in airports could surpass their runway size. Such challenges exist in Saudi Arabia airports, Tokyo Narita and various airports. Therefore the air traffic managers need to have a slot structure, where time apertures are apportioned for airplanes. Such an arrangement operates on certain ideologies.
A good example is ‘grandfathers rights’. The rule stipulates that in case a transporter had a specific slot during a specific period, it will be permitted to use that slot again in a later in equal measures. This structure has suited binding transporters. Though, it can inflict severe restraints on the timetable organizers to adjust the time or upsurge their flying rates at the overfilled landing field. This arrangement may be measured as anti-competitive; on the other hand, they are approved in numerous jammed airports. The arrival slots can have a marketable value and may be sold between carriers. airports are closed at night or have fewer activities.
Pool Agreements -Occasionally air companies may agree to work together in some areas to enable to cope with challenges brought by the schedules
General Operational Requirements
The general requirements need to be looked at during timetables planning. The operational needs may include, crew meals, breaks, providing aircraft cleaning services. Normally, the sequence of the schedule is started 9 months before it is needed. Though numerous carriers may use specific methods, this process will frequently cover the subsequent stages:
The Integrated Capacity Utilization and Scheduling Model
The concept usually contains (i)the initial timetable of air travel formed by carriers for any specific time of airport operations; and(ii)approximates of airfield size for all combinations of prevailing weather conditions and runway configuration. These steps are illustrated in the figure below. We embody airport size by piece-wise linear Operational, which defines the non-growing association between the average amount of landings/takeoffs which can be performed every minute. We stipulate one envelope for every runway alignment in Instrument Meteorological Conditions” (IMC) and “Visual Meteorological Conditions” (VMC) the research applies VMC as well as IMC as substitutes of “good” and “bad” weather environments, congruently. This picture captures the dependences of airport size on weather conditions, the runway configuration in use, and the equilibrium of arrivals and takeoff. Fig 1 displays the envelopes related to two hypothetical runway structures, which achieve diverse trade-offs between landing and takeoff amount. Configuration one can attain the largest arrival throughput while Configuration two attains the largest takeoff quantity. The dots display theoretical numbers of landings/ takeoffs scheduled per period.
The ICUSM enhances :(i)scheduling mediations; as well as (ii)capacity utilization policies. These two sets of judgments are signified in Fig 1b. Firstly, planning interventions adjust the timetable of trips to cut peak-hour scheduling levels, which is to move dots in the right corner next to capacity which is signified by the arrows in Fig 1b. Additionally, the control of capacity operation strategies enhances the runway configuration to apply and on which point of the corresponding Operational Throughput Envelope to run. This is signified by the blue-rings in Fig 1b.
The goal of the ICUSM model is to locate a timetable of flights which reduces the displacement from the initial timetable schedule, under scheduling, size and line length reduction restraints. Scheduling restraints safeguard that no airplane is removed, and timetable block times, airplane networks and travelers programs are unaffected. The mixture of these scheduling restraints and the goal of minimalizing schedule movement tries to minimize interference with carrier competitive timetable. Size restraints guarantee that arrivals/departures are examined at tariffs formed by Operational Amount Envelope parallel to the runway configuration in use and weather conditions. Lastly, queue length-lessening restraints guarantee that every 15-minute period, the projected landing and take off queue intervals do not surpass prespecified restrictions, designated by AMAX & DMAX.
The main innovations in the model lie in the form of the size limitations and the queue length cutbacks constraints. Firstly, airfield size is categorized as the projected amount of activities which may be carried out per time, therefore allowing the combination of a stochastic concept of airfield jamming into scheduling concept. Secondly, the line length decreases restraints incorporate on-time performance targets the scheduling concept.
The ultimate issue cannot be expressed as Mixed Integer Program since (a) probabilistic progression of arrival/departure queues hinges on the flight’s schedules, and (b) stochastic association between trip schedules and interruptions is nonlinear.
The ICUSM consequently depends on innovation solution design to frame and solve the problem defined above. Before defining, we introduce the following notations. We split operations day into 15 minutes each time slot. We symbolize by At and Dt the random variables describing arrival and departure queue lengths at the end of period t, respectively. The arrival/departure queue lengths are insights of these particular random variables symbolized by at/ dt. Scheduling decisions try to cut expected queue lengths, while capacity utilization strategies are based on queue lengths at/dt. We also signify by λX & λY the collective schedule of trips, i.e., the sum of planned landing and take-offs per period t in all carriers.
The ICUS contains three key modules, presented in Fig 2:
Model of Scheduling Interventions.
The researcher formulates the outline for arrangement interventions as an Integer Programming model. The researcher signifies by K the airfield where scheduling plans are used. The researcher reflects in the model every airplane ﬂights which lands at K or depart K, and all ﬂights that are ﬂown by an aircraft which visits K in the course the day.
This results in ﬂights that do not run in K being involved in the concept. For example, if an airplane operates the route K- L-M-K, then trip leg L-M is included in the concept. This is because the rescheduling of planes leg K-L or M/K may call for an adjustment in the timetable of ﬂight leg L-M to preserve feasible networks.
The research represents by F corresponding number of trips. The researcher includes 15-minute periods from the first takeoff time to the up-to-the-minute landing time of F trips. The researcher signifies by T parallel time.
The C includes all airplanes (i,j) between which there is an aircraft connection or a traveler connection. To reduce the effects of aircraft postponement, we enforce that every link must be preserved. It is noted that the mathematical symbolization of traveler and aircraft connections is alike.
Ackert, S. (2012). Basics of Aircraft Market Analysis Forming a Policy to Identify Ideal Assets for Long-term Economic Returns. Aircraft Monitor (p 4).
Alharthi, K. (2014). Airspace and Infrastructure Development in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A Case Study: How Will King Abdul-Aziz International Airport (KAIA) in Jeddah City Become a Successful Hub Airport within the Next Decade? London, UK: Saudi Arabian Cultural Mission – Britain.
Al-Medabesh, A., & Ali, M. (2014). Customer services in Saudi Arabian Airlines: a case study of Jazan Province. Interdisciplinary Journal Of Contemporary Research In Business, 5 (9), 335–357.
Balakrishnan, H. and Chandran, B. (2010). Algorithms for Scheduling Runway Operations Under Constrained Position Shifting. Operations Research, 58(6):1650–1665.
Barnhart, C., Bertsimas, D., Caramanis, C., and Fearing, D. (2012). Equitable and Efficient Coordi- nation in Traffic Flow Management. Transportation Science, 46(2):262–280.
Barnhart, C., Fearing, D., and Vaze, V. (2014). Modeling Passenger Travel and Delays in the National Air Transportation System. Operations Research, 62(3):580–601.
Churchill, A., Lovell, D., Mukherjee, A., and Ball, M. (2012). Determining the Number of Airport Arrival Slots. Transportation Science, 47(4):526–541.
Damanhori, A. (2013). Factors affecting the application of business process reengineering: an empirical study Saudi Airlines. Journal of Al-Quds Open University for Research & Studies, 31 (2), 41–86.
Federal Aviation Administration (2019). Aviation Performance Metrics (APM) database. Accessed April 4, 2013. Available at: https://aspm.faa.gov/apm.
Jacquillat, A. and Odoni, A. (2015). Endogenous Control of Arrival and Departure Service Rates in Dynamic and Stochastic Queuing Models with Application at JFK and EWR. Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, 73(1):133–151.
Ministry of Finance Saudi Arabia. (2015). Statment about the National Budget 2016.Retrieved Nov 6, 2019, from: https://www.mof.gov.sa/English/DownloadsCenter/Budget/Ministry’s%20of%20Fina
Nikoleris, T. and Hansen, M. (2012). Queueing Models for Trajectory-Based Aircraft Operations. Transportation Science, 46(4):501–511.
Pellegrini, P., Castelli, L., and Pesenti, R. (2012). Secondary Trading of Airport Slots as a Com- binatorial Exchange. Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, 48(5):1009–1022.
Pyrgiotis, N (2015). On the Impact of Scheduling Limits: A Case Study at Newark International Airport. Transportation Science, Articles in advance.
Simaiakis, I. (2012). Analysis, Modeling and Control of the Airport Departure Process. PhD thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Vaze, V. and Barnhart, C. (2012). Modeling Airline Frequency Competition for Airport Congestion Mitigation. Transportation Science, 46(4):512–535.
Zografos, K., Salouras, Y., and Madas, M. (2012). Dealing with the Efficient Allocation of Scarce Re- sources at Congested Airports. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 21:244– 256.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH GRADE VALLEY TODAY AND GET AN AMAZING DISCOUNT