Blockchain technology is an innovative addition to the financial market. What began as a brainchild by the people or person known as â€˜Satoshi Nakamotoâ€™, blockchain technology has evolved and become something far greater than most would have imagined. Blockchain technology allows for digital data to be distributed (not copied), allowing for it to become the foundation for a new kind of internet. Businesses have used the technology to implement the use of digital currency like Bitcoin and promote growth of blockchain companies. Some of these successful blockchain companies are: Aeternity, Bitfury, DFINITY, ContentKid, and Blockphase. These companies represent the future of blockchain technology and how far it will go.
Background: What is Block-Chain Technology?
A recent innovation within the financial world, the mastermind behind blockchain technology is â€˜Satoshi Nakamotoâ€™. He is the pseudonym for a person or a group of responsible for developing, authoring, making, and deploying bitcoin, bitcoin white paper, and bitcoins original reference implementation in 2008 (Okrant, 2018). Through that implementation, the first blockchain database was formed. Such actions also led to solving the doubles-spending dilemma associated with digital currency via the use of a peer-to-peer network. But what is blockchain? Originally known as block chain, blockchain represents a continuously growing list of records or â€˜blocksâ€™ secured and linked through cryptography (Okrant, 2018).
Blocks often contain cryptographic hashes of previous blocks, transaction information, and a timestamp (Kelly, 2015). Blockchains are naturally resistant to modification of the information. Blockchains can record transactions among two different parties as an open, distributed ledger in a permanent and verifiable way. When used as distributed ledgers, blockchains are validated and managed through a peer-to-peer network. After the data is recorded, there is no possibility of retroactively altering the block without changing subsequent blocks. To do so means collusion of network majority (Kelly, 2015).
Blockchain technology is secure by design, exemplifying high Byzantine fault tolerance with a distributed computing system (Kelly, 2015). Due to the security and stability of blockchain technology, it can be suitable for medical records, identity management, voting, food traceability, and recording of events. Serving in its initial stages as a public transaction ledger for bitcoin, it has led to innovations and creations of companies specializing in blockchain technology.
Status of Block-Chain Technology
The current status of block-chain technology revolves around digital currency. Although blockchain technology can be used for medical records and a slew of other processes, currently, it is seeing growth in the domain of digital currency. Digital currency has become popular because it is backed not by a bank, but by a secure network, removing the need for banks and the various privacy concerns related to banking (). Digital currency can be bought, sold and traded. They function like stock in a company and led to the â€˜bitcoin bubbleâ€™. The bitcoin bubble led to the price of Bitcoin soaring up as high as $19,511 or more, before plummeting to $6,750 in mid-April of this year. â€œThe cryptocurrency has fallen more than 65 percent since peaking in December at $19,511. Bitcoin rose 2.2 percent to $6,750 on Mondayâ€ (Wolf, 2018).
So many people are interested in replicating the success of bitcoin during its meteoric and fast rise, that other digital currencies have been created. Furthermore, many companies have become accepting digital currency, with the most popular option being bitcoin. Some companies that accept bitcoin are Expedia, Microsoft, and Overstock (Heston, 2018(. Other digital currency competitors to bitcoin are Ethereum, ripple, and BitcoinCash. Ethereum was developed by a small team of co-founders in 2014 and ripple was developed by Chris Larsen and Arthur Britto in 2012. BitcoinCash came later in August of 2017 by the Bitcoin Unlimited group (Heston, 2018)
For those wishing to buy, sell, and trade cryptocurrencies, they can do so in the crypto exchange. A stock market similar to the NASDAQ, popular crypto exchanges are kraken, GDAX, and BINANCE (Heston, 2018). Tech pioneers, teenagers, and venture capitalists have invested and enabled cryptocurrency to thrive. Some example of these investors is Eddy Zillan, Peter Thiel, and the Winklevoss Twins. Eddy Zillan for example, invested his entire life savings of $12,000 into Ethereum and other similar currencies and made a return on investment of $350,000. From there he founded an investment advice company (Heston, 2018). Many examples of him exist and have led to other investment strategies like crypto wallets.
What crypto wallets due is store owned cryptocurrency so that it can be used for future purposes like trading or making purchases. There are various crypto wallets like a desktop wallet, paper wallet, hardware wallet, and online/mobile wallets (Mavadiya, 2017). Because of the various features of a blockchain network like decentralization and making data inherently public, it put security into a seemingly insecure concept. While future uses for the finance world could include blockchain technology in other areas, for now the focus is on digital currency.
Some recent innovations seen in blockchain technology aside from digital currency is in healthcare and government with MedRec aiming to managed medical record access through the Ethereum blockchain allowing doctors and patients to access and share medical records across various providers (Heston, 2018). There will also be the option for user data authentication for secure medical records. Regarding government blockchain technology use, Dubai began the initiative to implement blockchain methods to increase government efficiency through the digitization of 100 million documents. Dubai also aims to generate and revitalize business and improve travel for foreigners through digital and secure travel documentation like licenses and visas (Mavadiya, 2017).
People wanting more uses for blockchain technology believe its implementation will reduce regulation as well as increase anonymity. People aiming to invest, spend, or make transactions may want absolute privacy and look to cryptocurrency for this privacy or the general blockchain technology. For example, one does not need identification to use and trade cryptocurrency. Transactions are untraceable and fungibility averts blacklisting by exchanges and vendors (Mavadiya, 2017).
However, cryptocurrency has its downside. Some people have fears of its use believing it to be illegal or have not heard of the new technology. Furthermore, there have been hacks of cryptocurrency exchanges with the most recent happening in Coincheck in January of 2018. The resultant hack ended with $530 million lost of the NEM cryptocurrency (Heston, 2018). Another hack occurred in June of 2017 and resulted in $7 million dollars lost from Ethereum and bitcoin. Bitcoin lost another $65 million in August of 2016. Such attacks show how easy it is to steal vast amount of money in a relatively short period of time.
When it comes to long-term viability of cryptocurrency and the subsequent use of blockchain technology, cryptocurrencies have been shown to be amazingly volatile. Within less than a year in 2017, Bitcoin for example, saw A 1,900% increase but then in 2018, crashed to $6,000. While there is hope that stability will arise, increasing cryptocurrency claim prices, the current state of cryptocurrency is an erratic one and therefore may see a decline in the future.
Various companies exist that fully use blockchain technology. One of them is Aeternity. Existing as an open-source, digital asset, and blockchain-based platform, the company builds upon and modifies the decentralized cryptographic peer-to-peer technology (Pimental, 2018). This means allowing real-world data to interface via decentralized â€˜oraclesâ€™ with smart contracts. Aeternity offers the ability to execute scripts with a virtual machine by using decentralized global networks consisting of public nodes that maintain the blockchain (Pimental, 2018). The AE toke or â€˜aeonâ€™ is the balue token for the company and can be transferred among participants for computations performed. The use of tokens thwart spam on the network at the same time allocating computation time and storage proportionally to the incentive-based request.
The core of Aeternity is written in Erlang, providing stability through its fault-tolerant language. For those looking to data-mine even on smart phones, the â€˜Cuckoo Cycleâ€™ mining algorithm improves the ASIC problem by offering great decentralization potential. New developments for the company regarding blockchain technology involve state channels. They are spin-off of the concept of payment channels (Pimental, 2018). Sometimes the need arises to have privacy during signed transactions and thus state channels offer that option. The design of state channels allows for off-chain verification of smart contracts as well as data.
Blockchains are great for prediction markets because of the potential to harness the wisdom of crowds in a transparent and decentralized way. Users can generate oracles through posing a question or making a statement. They can also do so by offering a binary or staking coins. Aeternity is also focused on supply chain management using oracles. They also have interest in digital insurance thanks the use and need for a prediction market. The company is one of several aimed at revolutionizing blockchain technology.
Established for years as one of the best regarding blockchain technology the Bitfury Group operates as a full-service blockchain technology firm. â€œThe Bitfury Group (www.bitfury.com) started out as a Bitcoin mining company, but it has transitioned into a full-service blockchain technology company. Bitfury develops software and creates hardware solutions for businesses and governmentsâ€ (Laurence & Wiley Publishing, Inc. Staff, 2017, p. 197). The company processes both public and private blockchain transactions. They assist clients with blockchain analytics as well as utilize the Bitcoin transactions, conducting advanced data research and analysis for transaction histories. The Bitcoin blockchain and the companyâ€™s ability to analyze has led to government use of this technology to track down criminal activities (Laurence & Wiley Publishing, Inc. Staff, 2017).
Among the various processes the company performs it has been involved in the Lightning network. â€œBitfury is also involved in the development of the Lightning Network. Lightning is an overlay network to Bitcoinâ€™s blockchain, enabling instantaneous micro transactions. Bitfury is also working on property rights registryâ€ (Laurence & Wiley Publishing, Inc. Staff, 2017, p. 197). The convenience of rapid micro transactions could expand the use of cryptocurrencies like bitcoin. By having companies like Bitfury work to provide higher levels of convenience, it makes it easier to determine the best path for expansion of cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology.
The dedication of the firm to improving bitcoinâ€™s blockchain ecosystem is what allows bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies to thrive. â€œBitfury is completely dedicated to the improvement of Bitcoinâ€™s blockchain ecosystem. Its technology helps in the efficient management of digital assets. It offers added security to private and public blockchain transactions using hardware and software solutionsâ€ (Laurence & Wiley Publishing, Inc. Staff, 2017, p. 197). With Bitfury paving the way for cryptocurrencies, the future is bright for its development and continued use of blockchain technology.
Some blockchain companies have other aims like crowd computing. â€œDfinity in its ICO, Dfinity raised more than 3,000 Bitcoins. The aim for Dfinity is to build a decentralized platform aimed at crowd computingâ€ (Hlubi, 2018, p. 83). The new kind of public decentralize cloud is a result of the unbounded blockchain computer. As noted on their website, they can minimize enterprise IT system expenses by as much as 90% via the reduction of human capital needs. The cloud provides autonomous self-updating of software systems enabling companies to beat monopolistic intermediaries. The future is now with DFINITY.
Their ability to promote self-governance will improve the way companies, especially start-ups, run. â€œDFINITY introduces algorithmic governance in the form of a “Blockchain Nervous System” that can protect users from attacks and help restart broken systems, dynamically optimize network security and efficiency, upgrade the protocol and mitigate misuse of the platform, for example by those wishing to run illegal or immoral systemsâ€ (DFNITY, 2018). The Blockchain Nervous System allows for companies to maintain self-governance through reducing human capital spent on protecting the system. Human capital can be expensive to maintain, especially in high numbers. However, by minimizing need for human employees, companies can have an overall reduction in costs. The decentralized cloud is the main feature of the company and the reason why it is leading the way in blockchain technology innovation:
This rests upon a new blockchain computer that is similar in concept to Ethereum but has vastly improved performance and, ultimately, unlimited capacity. Business applications running on this computer will be unstoppable and won’t need to involve complex components such as databases, backup and restore systems or Amazon Web Services, allowing costs to be cut by 90% or more by reducing the supporting human capital required (DFNITY, 2018).
Anything that can lead to faster transactions and unlimited capacity can pave the way for blockchain technology.
ContentKid exists as a disruptive payments firm utilizing that blockchain technology to provide short-lived subscriptions to content that users might just need for an hour, a day instead of the traditional annual and monthly fees. Innovative, the company shares and allocates these subscriptions across users that pay for what is needed. The solution was created with the Hyperledger blockchain in mind aiming to reduce fraud while also promoting the availability of premium content to average users. Imagine if users can get Netflix for one day instead of paying the monthly subscription. They can just binge watch that one show and then not pay for anything else. This kind of technology and service is needed in the world of constant premium content subscriptions.
Along with premium content from movies and shows, the same can be applied to news, games, and other information. â€œThe US-based company provides its users with short-lived subscriptions to any digital providerâ€™s premium content, such as gaming, news, information or entertainment via one account/passwordâ€ (Scott-Briggs, 2018). This kind of technology seems basic. Nevertheless, it is so important in the current age and can act as a means of expanding blockchain technology through entertainment. Without these innovations, there is a difficulty in understanding what can be done with technologies like blockchain. Aside from cryptocurrencies, blockchain technology can see a variety of uses in many fields. Entertainment being a potentially highly profitable field.
Blockphase is a company that knows and appreciates blockchain technology. They understand the value in its use. According to the company, blockchain technology offers a myriad of benefits. The most prominent of them being authentication, transparency, data security, and disintermediation. Although blockchain technology remains in its infancy, Blockphase has managed to integrate it into some impressive applications. For example, the company has researched it use as a Digital Identity is an ID that can be used for compliance matters like secure voting. They also examined the use of blockchain for registry. â€œBlockchain enables timestamp and proof of existence and notarization of every transactionâ€ (Blockphase, 2018).
Notarization is something everyone struggles to perform because it must be done in person and must have a witness for notary. If someone can perform this action online, it saves time and money, adding value through convenience. This is the kind of applications that can revolutionize processes in companies, courts, and other government agencies (Blockphase, 2018). With the innovations that continue by using blockchain technology, companies like Blockphase are at the forefront of truly novel concepts that can help billions worldwide.
How Blockchain will Affect the Future of the Banking Industry
Because block-chain technology has grown in popularity, some worry how it will impact the banking industry. While some companies were mentioned that promote a move away from banking, companies like Ripple may enable growth in banking, specifically, global banking.
In terms of the impact of specific blockchain companies, few have done more for the global banking industry to date than Ripple. The San Francisco-based tech firm is now providing global financial-settlement solutions powered by blockchain to enable banks to transact directly with each other and lower the total costs of settlement. Its digital asset XRP has grown to become the fourth biggest cryptocurrency by market capitalization (after bitcoin, ethereum and bitcoin cash), and banks are now joining in droves to improve their cross-border payment capabilities (Manning, 2017).
Global banking requires easy cross-border payments. Cryptocurrency facilitates that. It allows banks to securely process transactions from across the world without having to convert money from one denomination to another.
In June of 2017, the world experienced the first blockchain-powered instant-remittance service. Two countries adopted these services (Thailand and Japan) to establish a convenient and easy payment rail leading to a peaceful and fruitful collaboration between the two nations. The two banks were Thailandâ€™s Siam Commercial Bank and Japanâ€™s SBI Remit, â€œwhich uses Rippleâ€™s blockchain, will help to boost the speed, efficiency and cost of the countriesâ€™ remittance corridor, which sees around $250 million transferred every year, largely as a result of the 40,000 Thai nationals living in Japanâ€ (Manning, 2017). Other countries like the United States and the United Kingdom can see improvements in their transactions with each other and other countries as businesses continue to expand and move into foreign territories.
The move to global banking has been long desired. Although blockchain technology removes some of the centralization, it improves the way in which banks can work with each other across the globe. This can lead to a globalization evolution that can speed up the transition from regional governments to one world governments where a main bank and a main government can form. Although these implications have not been thoroughly analyzed, it can be possible through cryptocurrency and companies like Ripple that take full advantage of the new processes and technologies.
Banking has been problematic when seen in the global scale. Exchange rates may be faulty. Communication may seem slow. Private transactions may seem problematic. Blockchain technologies solves this problem, allowing for a smooth transition from national, regional, and local banks, to global banks. All it takes is further development of the blockchain technology to increase security and prevent potential and costly hacks. As seen before, hacks can cost hundreds of millions of dollars, leaving companies, private citizens, and banks with potential net losses and additional problems.
In conclusion, companies have evolved to include blockchain technology in recent years. Blockchain technology is the reason for the creation of the Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies. Thanks to these cryptocurrencies, business and citizens have a chance to perform private transactions without the need of banks. The companies discussed have enabled an expanded use of blockchain technology. While cryptocurrency is at the forefront, these companies have detailed the creation of a decentralized cloud, blockchain application in hospitals through medical records, voter systems through Digital Identity, and more.
While some fear the blockchain technology of cryptocurrency is unstable and erratic, there is so much more that blockchain technology has to offer. While the belief is that time will lead to an end of this technology, that seems far from the truth. If anything, the future shows blockchain technology becoming the main means of performing important, everyday actions. From entertainment tasks like subscriptions to business processes like instant micro transactions, there are so many ways blockchain can revolutionize the way people see technology.
Currently cryptocurrencies take up the bulk of the innovations for blockchain. However, as governments and hospitals identify the ease and cost-effective stability of blockchain technology, it will expand and be a part of a personâ€™s everyday life. Blockchain technology is the future of technology and the future of finance. In a society aimed at a globalist perspective, it could permanently change how people view money and perform financial transactions.
This rings especially true for banking as global banking requires the kind of innovative and transformative ability that is brought on by blockchain technology. Blockchain technology has expanded in the last year to include various cryptocurrencies and potential cloud storage that provides effective and swift banking options for countries. Japan and Thailand have already enabled the use of blockchain technology for some of their banks and it may well extend to countries like the United States and the United Kingdom. The world is ready for the revolution that is blockchain technology and it will continue to expand, enabling a truly global banking system and globalized world.
Blockphase. (2018). Home. Retrieved from https://www.blockphase.com/
DFNITY. (2018). DFINITY – The Decentralized Cloud. Retrieved from https://www.dfinity.org/
Heston, A. (2018). Bitcoin Investing: An Introduction to Cryptocurrency and How to Invest in Bitcoin. PublishDrive.
Hlubi, S. (2018). Cryptocurrency The present and the future! Lulu.com.
Kelly, B. (2015). The Bitcoin big bang: How alternative currencies are about to change the world. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Laurence, T., & Wiley Publishing, Inc. Staff. (2017). Blockchain for Dummies. Somerset: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated.
Manning, J. (2017, September 3). How Blockchain Is Changing the Banking Industry. Retrieved from https://internationalbanker.com/banking/blockchain-changing-banking-industry/
Mavadiya, M. (2017, August 22). Blockchain, Bitcoin And Ethereum Explained. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/madhvimavadiya/2017/08/22/blockchain-bitcoin-ethereum/#1ed60ee06df9
Okrant, R. (2018). Bitcoin Mania: Understanding the Crypto Financial Market Using Technical Analysis. Cork: BookBaby.
Pimental, D. (2018, May 23). Blockchain Firm Aeternity Launches Starfleet Incubator – BlockTribune. Retrieved from http://blocktribune.com/blockchain-firm-aeternity-launches-starfleet-incubator/
Scott-Briggs, A. (2018, January 12). 5 Blockchain Pioneers to Watch in 2018. | TechBullion. Retrieved from https://www.techbullion.com/5-blockchain-pioneers-watch-2018/
Wolf, J. (2018, April 9). Bitcoin, the Biggest Bubble in History, Is Popping. Retrieved from https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-04-09/bitcoin-seen-popping-like-the-greatest-bubbles-by-bofa
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