A firm currently uses 50,000 workers to produce 200,000 units of output per day. The daily wage per worker is $80, and the price of the firm’s output is $25. The cost of other variable inputs is $400,000 per day.
Assume that total fixed cost equals $1,000,000. Calculate the values for the following four formulas:
Total Variable Cost = (Number of Workers x Worker’s Daily Wage) + Other Variable Costs
TVC = (50,000 x 80) + 400,000
TVC = $[4,000,000 + 400,000]
TVC = $4,400,000
Average Variable Cost = Total Variable Cost / Units of Output per Day
AVC = TVC/Q
But Q = 200,000
AVC = $(4,400,000/200,000)
AVC = $22.0
Average Total Cost = (Total Variable Cost +Total Fixed Cost) / Units of Output per Day
ATC = (TVC + TFC)/Q
ATC = $(4,400,000 + 1,000,000)/200,000
ATC = $27
Worker Productivity = Units of Output per Day / Number of Workers
WP = Q/L where Q = 200,000 and L = 50,000
WP = 200,000/50,000
WP = 4
Complete the Following:
Calculate the firm’s profit or loss
Total Revenue – Total Costs = Profit
Profitability = TR-TC
But TR = PxQ while TC = TFC + TVC
TC = $5,400,000; TR = $(200,000×25) = TR = $5,000,000
Profit = $(5,000,000 – 5,400,000) = -$400,000
Hence, Loss = $400,000
Compare the firm’s output price and the calculated average variable cost and average total cost. Should the firm shut down immediately when the total fixed cost equals $1,000,000?
At TFC = $1,000,000, the firm is running at a loss since TC>TR, representing a loss of $400,000.
The Price, P = $25, Average Variable Costs (AVC) = $22.0
Since P > AVC (that is $25 >$22), the firm should therefore should not immediately shutdown, instead, it should continue to produce at this level of fixed costs.
With production the loss is $400,000
Or Fixed Costs minus (P-AVC)*Q = $1,000,000 – $600,000 = -$400,000
Without production or shutdown the loss is $1,000,000.
Since the shutdown loss is even more than the production loss ($1,000,000>$400,000), the firm should better produce at this level of fixed costs as opposed to shutting down (Froeb, 2014).
If the firm can operate at a loss in the short run, how many employees need to be laid off for the company to break even? (Assume that after layoffs, the remaining workers maintain output at 200,000 units per day.)
Break-even price: Pbe = ATCmin = $27
Break-even price: Pbe =Average Total Costmin,
Output / number of workers = 200000 / 50000 = 4 units per day
Total costs – $5.4 M 1M Fixed cost
at break even, TR = $5M = TC
Decrease my total cost by $400,000
Decreased in Workers = Decrease in TC/wage rate = $400,000 / $80 = 5000
Labor force = 50,000 – 5,000 = 45000 workers
The company therefore will have to lay-off 5,000 workers, leaving 45,000 workers to produce the same quantity of output.
Given a lower number of employees now working at the company, what is the change in worker productivity?
Workers Productivity = 200000/45000= 4.44 unit per day
Decrease our TC by $2.4 M
TVC with 50000 is $4.4 M
$2,000,000 is cost
$2,000,000/ $80 = 25000
25000 workers to produce 200,000
Workers productivity = 200,000/25,000
TC = $7.4 M
Loss of 2.4M
Decrease my work for by 2.4M
2.4M/ $80 = 30000
Workers productivity has to change
200000/20000 = 10 units per day
It is not possible, cant fire enough people when you have a fixed cost at 3million to assure productivity.
The change of workers is too large
No shut down
Revenue and Cost Table
|Average Total Cost (ATC)||$27.00|
|Average Variable Cost (AVC)||$22.00|
Froeb, L. M. (2014). Managerial Economics: A Problem Solving Approach. Australia: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Froeb, L. M., & McCann, B. T. (2010). Managerial Economics: A Problem Solving Approach. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Trivedi, M. L. (2002). Managerial Economics: Theory And Applications. New Delhi: McGraw-Hill.
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