Classification of Eating Disorders Essay Paper

Eating Disorder

Anomalous eating habits involving too less or too much dietary intake that may lead to physical or mental harm to an individual is known as Eating Disorders.

Classification of Eating Disorders

According to Walsh and Sysko (2009) Eating Disorders are most commonly classified into three categories

Anorexia nervosa (AN)

Bulimia nervosa (BN)

Atypical eating disorder or Eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS)

Anorexia Nervosa is a medical condition associated with exceptionally low food intake, less bodyweight and an apprehension of increase in the body weight in the affected person. The affected person usually exhibit transition from severe limitation to the binge eating behavior.

Bulimia Nervosa is a medical condition in which the effected individual binges on food and his repeated episodes of eating become out of his control. Hence, this disease is associated with obesity in the affected person. (Marcus and Wildes, 2009) Later on, the individual try to counteract this behavior by utilizing different methods like vomiting or taking laxatives in order to avoid weight gain. But, the reverse practice (a move from binge eating into eating limitation) is less common.

Atypical eating disorder or EDNOS includes modifications of above mentioned disorders, but with sub-threshold indicators. This disorder possesses major medical severity that does not fulfil the indicative criteria for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa both. More than half of the cases of eating disorders fall into this category. (Thomas, Vartanian and Brownell, 2009)

Current Theoretical Perspectives mental disorder

The description of the central control of appetite can be used to acquire an in-depth knowledge of eating disorders. An easy way is to understand three components of nervous system. Foremost is the Homoeostatic System which is mainly controlled by the brain stem and hypothalamus that incorporate peripheral metabolic markers with details from the gastrointestinal tract to influence levels of appetite, fullness, and autonomic nervous activity. Then there is Drive System, that holds distributed neural circuitry in the mesolimbic cortex and striatum that has conducting inputs from sense organs and neural constituents that are involved in processes of learning and remembrance. (Thomas, Vartanian and Brownell, 2009) This system records the reward associated with food intake and is involved in the impulse to hunt for food and consume. Finally, there exists self-regulation system, within which a kind of let say top down control contextualizes hunger within life objectives, significance, and meaning.

Anomalous variations in these systems may lead to risk of developing or developing and sustaining eating disorders. A theory advocates that these disorders may occur due to persistent deficits in self-regulatory systems. In addition, eating disorder patterns influence the drive system, for instance, a boost in binge eating has found to be associated with subsequent food limitation, gastric drainage (vomiting), anxiety, and discontinuation of highly appetizing food- and some animals with a craving for food. (Pallister and Waller 2008) It was observed that binge eating may even follow intervals of food withdrawal. Furthermore, they had a tendency to go back to their previous eating habits after some time, and may exhibit cross-tolerance towards cocaine and alcohol. (Calero-Elvira, Krug, Davis, Lopez, Fernandez-Aranda, Treasure, 2009) These behavioral changes take place due to the changes in the levels of dopamine and upload (chemical transmitters). Lastly, the reaction to alterations in patterns of food consumption of the putative homoeostatic system may develop other eating disorders like, anorexia nervosa which is often linked with creating slimness, but the case is other way round for bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder.

Treatment of Eating Disorders

Medical complications

Eating disorders mostly develop in adulthood, but the highest occurrence has been observed between 10 and 19 years of age, that may result in disturbing optimum growth and development. (Walsh and Sysko, 2009) Majority of path physiological complications associated with eating disorders may reverse with improving dietary habits or discontinue anomalous dietary and purging behaviors. (Eddy, Dorer, Franko, Tahilani, Thompson-Brenner and Herzog, 2008) Nevertheless, a number of physical damages may prove to be life-threatening, like extreme vomiting or laxative and diuretic abuse may lead to electrolyte imbalance in the body. (Calero-Elvira, Krug, Davis, Lopez, Fernandez-Aranda, Treasure, 2009) Moreover, nutritional insufficiency augments the possibility of developing cardiac arrhythmias and repeated infections. Symptoms of increased health risk are indicators of the extent to which an immediate professional consultation or inpatient handling, or both, are needed mainly in individuals with a recent and severe onset.

Possibly the greatest controversy related to eating-disorder management is the treatment of binge-eating disorder. (Marcus and Wildes, 2009) People with binge-eating disorder exhibit varying attitudes towards eating, shape and weight, together with mood swings like depression and behavior disorders. Since binge-eating disorder encompass both weight and eating-disorder problems, experts of both the obesity and eating-disorders fields identify disease management goals in their own way. On one hand, eating-disorders specialists recommend binge-eating is best cured by conventional eating-disorder approaches, like providing emotional support to the patient may lead to stop bingeing, improve their confidence and body acceptance. Same is correct for underlying psychological problems associated with obesity such as depression and nervousness.

Conversely, specialists of obesity recommend curing obesity first. They think it is useless or sometimes impossible to handle psychological problems without treating obesity. However, some eating disorder experts believe, since the disease is complex, there are several ways to treat it. For instance, studies reveal that cognitive behavioral therapy is beneficial for treating depression and bulimia both, interpersonal therapy helps cure depression, and behavioral weight-loss management helps cure obesity.

The complications in anorexia nervosa develop slowly and gradually and mostly develop an overall therapeutic condition rather than specific. Hence, these are rectified gradually and orally, through administration of food supplements, multiple minerals and multivitamins. In the course of first 3-7 days, an easily digestible food measuring approximately 5-10 kcal/kg per day together with thiamine and vitamin B co-strong in small meals is given to the patient. (Thomas, Vartanian and Brownell, 2009)

Meals containing large quantities of phosphorus (eg, dairy products) are recommended to the severely malnourished individuals, that diminishes the onset of refeeding syndrome. Food administration by tube is seldom required. Mostly the treatment intends to develop an increase of 250 g and 450 g weight in outpatients in a week, and approximately 1 kg in those treated in hospital.

Few strategies to develop weight change like vomiting or diuretics abuse, laxatives, or caffeinated and fizzy drinks may lead to electrolyte imbalance or under or over hydration. (Marcus and Wildes, 2009) Severe conditions may lead to acute renal failure. Oral administration is mostly the foremost and most preferred way of management; nevertheless the treatment is decided after a complete medical checkup and assessment of risk. Constant vomiting and Persistent hypokalaemia needs rectification to correct an imbalance of calcium and magnesium. This can be achieved through Proton-pump inhibitors that reduce gastric acid secretion and metabolic alkalosis and assist in potassium reservation in the body.

Some therapeutic effects of eating disorders can be irremediable or possess after effects on well-being, mainly those involving the skeleton, brain and the reproductive system. Some long-term complications include growth retardation, Dental problems and osteoporosis.

Anorexia nervosa has found to be associated with reduced fertility, miscarriage and maternity rate in women. (Eddy, Dorer, Franko, Tahilani, Thompson-Brenner and Herzog, 2008) Anorexia nervosa may also cause a decreased birth weight of infants; similarly it is higher in children of mothers having bulimia nervosa. Moreover, such conditions may augment risk for prenatal problems and feeding complication that may affect growth in infants. Hence, both infertile and expected women should be screened and treated if diagnosed with eating disorders to maximize the well-being of upcoming generations.


Calero-Elvira A, Krug I, Davis K, Lopez C, Fernandez-Aranda F, Treasure J. (2009) Meta-analysis on drugs in people with eating disorders. 17: 243-59.

Eddy KT, Dorer DJ, Franko DL, Tahilani K, Thompson-Brenner H, Herzog DB. (2008) Diagnostic crossover in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: implications for DSM-V. American Journal of Psychiatry; 165: 245-50.

Marcus MD, Wildes JE. (2009) Obesity: is it a mental disorder? International Journal of Eating Disorder; published online July 16. DOI:10.1002/eat.20725.

Pallister E, Waller G. (2008) Anxiety in the eating disorders: understanding the overlap. Clinical Psychology Revised 2008; 28: 366-86.

Thomas JJ, Vartanian LR, Brownell KD. (2009) The relationship between eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) and officially recognized eating disorders: meta-analysis and implications for DSM. Psychological Journal; 135: 407-33.

Walsh BT, Sysko R. (2009) Broad categories for the diagnosis of eating disorders (BCD-ED): an alternative system for classification. International Journal of Eating Disorder, published online July 31. DOI:10.1002/eat.20722.

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper