Copper Deficiency in Cattle
Copper is a vital trace element in cattle because it plays essential roles in biological functions, in the animals’ body. It is vital for enzyme activity in various processes such as production of melanin, formation of collagen and elastin, iron metabolism, and an essential component of the immune and central nervous systems (Sutherland Web).
Copper also allows the absorption of iron from the small intestines for normal formation of erythrocytes (Sakhaee and Kazeminia Web). It is also vital in the release of iron into the plasma and the normal synthesis of elastin in the cardiovascular system. In addition, it also strengthens bone collagen; thus, promoting healthy bone development (Suttle Web). In the nervous system, it serves to regulate spinal cord and brain cell myelination since it is a constituent of cytochrome oxidase enzyme involved in the myelin synthesis (Thomas Web).
High amounts of sulphur and molybdenum in forage reduces the amount of copper absorbed into the digestive system of cattle (Blezinger Web). Sulphur and molybdenum are antagonists to copper which are ingested through forage (Arthington Web). Both molybdenum and sulphur form complexes called thiomolybdates, which are insoluble when they react with copper in the rumen (Ashmead and SD Web). The complexes cause binding of copper to blood albumins inhibiting its absorption and various copper-dependent enzymes such as cytochrome oxidase (Suttle Web). When cattle ingest sulphur-containing forage, there is the formation of copper sulphide in the rumen. This complex is insoluble; hence, it is not readily absorbed into the intestines (Paterson et al.).
Malabsorption of copper leads to a deficiency in the body, a condition known as hypocuprosis (Suttle 473). Hypocuprosis is detectable in the liver or blood of cattle that have ingested large amounts of soil or are heavily infested with Ostertagia (Peters Web). Cattle with low levels of copper in their bodies often manifest various symptoms. The hair coat changes color, particularly around the eyes creating a bespectacled mien in dark-haired cattle (Bishop, Yolande, and British Veterinary Association 425). Other symptoms include anaemia, diarrhoea, disease susceptibility, weight loss, lameness and fractures (Bishop, Yolande, and British Veterinary Association 425). In addition, the cattle also experience fertility problems such as a decrease in fertility rate, delayed oestrus, and difficulty in calving (Gengelbach, Ward and Spears Web). They also succumb to the falling disease or abrupt heart failure (Spears Web).
Copper is an indispensable trace element that should be included in the diet of cattle and other animals (Murphy Web). It is actively involved in various body functions and processes such as haemoglobin formation, and its deficiency has adverse effects particularly loss of pigmentation in the hair coat, infertility and lowered immunity (Gartrell Web).
Arthington, John. “Copper Antagonists in Cattle Nutrition.” University of Florida-IFAS. 2003. Web. 28 Nov. 2013.
Ashmead, HD., and SD Ashmead. “The Effects of Dietary Molybdenum Sulfur and Iron on Absorption of Three Organic Copper Sources.” The International Journal of Applied Research. 2010. Web. 28 Nov. 2013.
Bishop, Yolande, Yolande M. Bishop, and British Veterinary Association. The Veterinary Formulary: Veterinary Formulary. London: Pharmaceutical Press, 2005. Print.
Blezinger, Stephen. “High Levels of Sulphur in a Cow’s Diet Can Affect Copper Absorption.” Cattle Today Online. 2004. Web. 28 Nov. 2013.
Gartrell, John. “Copper Deficiency in Sheep and Cattle.” State of Western Australia. 2004. Web. 28 Nov. 2013.
Gengelbach, GP, JD Ward and JW Spears. “Effect of dietary copper, iron, and molybdenum on growth and copper status of beef cows and calves.” Journal of Animal Science 72.10 (1994): 2722-2727. Web. 28 Nov. 2013.
Murphy, Donal. “Trace element deficiency and supplementation in cattle.” Irish Farmers Journal. 14 April 2012. Web. 28 Nov. 2013.
Paterson, JA, CK Swenson, RP Ansotegui, B Wellington, and AB Johnson. “The Absorption of Copper and Zinc by Cattle Consuming Diets Containing the Antagonists Molybdenum, Sulfur, and Iron.” Montana State University. n.d. Web. 28 Nov. 2013.
Peters, Amy. “Copper Deficiency in Beef Cattle: Pasture-Applied Copper Study in Coos County, Oregon.” Oregon State University. 1 June 2011. Web. 28 Nov. 2013.
Sakhaee, E., and S. Kazeminia“Relationship between liver and blood plasma copper level and abortion in cattle.” Comparative Clinical Pathology 20.5 (2011): 467-469. Web. 28 Nov. 2013.
Spears, Jerry. “Trace Mineral Bioavailability in Ruminants.” The Journal of Nutrition 133.5 (2003): 1506S-1509S. Web. 28 Nov. 2013.
Sutherland, DN. “Copper Deficiency in Cattle in Queensland.” Australian Veterinary Journal 28.8 (2008): 204–208. Web. 28 Nov. 2013.
Suttle, Neville. “Copper Deficiency in Livestock.” Moredun Research Institute. 2010. Web. 28 Nov. 2013.
Suttle, Neville. Mineral Nutrition of Livestock. Boston: CABI, 2010. Print.
Thomas, Heather. “Copper Deficiency Can Be a Profit Robber.” Cattle Today Online. 2003. Web. 28 Nov. 2013.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH GRADE VALLEY TODAY AND GET AN AMAZING DISCOUNT