Glass is becoming an essential component of many facades. This material is easily shaped and installed, allowing for the creation of gripping and dominating structures. However, a contemporary construction must meet a number of criteria in addition to esthetic standards to create enough comfort within a structure. It is vital to imagine a structure with an interactive shell to improve occupant comfort by increasing the quality of interior space and optimizing natural resources[footnoteRef:1]. Modern glass constructions have progressed from single-layered framed window glazing to load-carrying, high-performance structural elements that significantly impact modern architectures aesthetic attributes. Due to the complexities of using glass elements in modern buildings, several faade consulting considerations must be made to achieve a high-quality solution[footnoteRef:2]. Therefore, this paper seeks to determine the various attributes of glass facade and further elaborate the discussion by case analysis of The Shard glass facade. The discussion will cover why glass is used in facades, the history of using glass facades, the benefits and attributes of glass facades, and the sustainability features. [1: Jelena Savi?, Danijela ?uri?-Mijovi?, and Veliborka Bogdanovi?. “Architectural glass: Types, performance and legislation.”Facta universitatis-series: Architecture and Civil Engineering11, no. 1 (2013): 35-45.] [2: Muhammad Tayyab Naqash, Antonio Formisano, and Ehsan Noroozinejad Farsangi. “Structural assessment of glass used in faade industry.” InStructures, vol. 33, pp. 4817-4827. Elsevier, 2021.]
Glass is one of the earliest manufactured materials that has been used continuously since its inception. Although the exact period of glass history is unknown, the earliest date discovered is 7000 B.C., during the Neolithic period. It was first employed in Egypt for decorative purposes before 3000 B.C., primarily as a colorful glaze on stone, pottery, and beads, but Romans pioneered its use in windows[footnoteRef:3]. A glass facade must have coincided with the change from conservative brick and concrete wall to a curtain wall. In the early years of the 19 century, there was a progressive shift away from traditional load-bearing masonry toward a framed structural system with steel and concrete parts[footnoteRef:4]. This gave rise to the possibility of replacing a masonry facade wall with a lightweight, transparent one. Because the facade on framed constructions no longer had a bearing duty, the facade wall took on the job of a faade window. The development of lightweight facade systems began and progressed simultaneously with the development of the skeletal system. [3: Alice T.Friedman, American Glamour and the Evolution of Modern Architecture. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2010.] [4: D. D. Mijovic, D. Milanovic, and S. Jelena. “Curtain walls: history and a continuing challenge.” InXVIII Int. Sci. Conf.” Construction Archit. VSU 2018, pp. 1-6. 2018.]
The Crystal Palace (figure 1 below), built by Joseph Paxton in London in 1851, heralded a shift in architectures customary opaqueness by introducing transparency through the glass. He took glass from the greenhouse into the architectural domain for the first time. One of the main goals of this project was to create a consistently lighted indoor area using daylight as the sole source of light. As a result, translucent screens of calico were hung externally in-between the ridge beams of the roof glazing. They covered the whole surface of the highly exposed horizontal section of the roof to reduce the harsh sunshine and glare caused by this excessive transparency.
Figure 1: The Crystal Palace in London, 1851, shows glass faade, (A) Exterior and (B) Interior. Adopted from Mijovic, Milanovic, and Jelena[footnoteRef:5] [5: Ibid, at 2]
The idea of transparent, all-glass buildings piqued the interest of architects. Chicago architects constructed Americas first high-rise glazed building in the first half of the twentieth century. At the same time, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe of Germany envisioned and crafted models of hypothetical 20 and 30 story skyscrapers clad entirely in glass, resembling buildings today. Technology didnt allow for the building of multi-story glass facades like those on Bunshafts Lever House and Mies van der Rohes Seagram Building and the many other glass skyscrapers that make up Manhattans skyline until the middle of the twentieth century.
Benefits for glass faade
A glass faade provides a strong and weather-resistant exterior for the building. While some people may not realize it, the materials used in glass facades are exceptionally sturdy and long-lasting. Theyre built to withstand severe weather, such as heavy winds, rain, snow, sleet, and everything in between. Glass will not only repel these elements, but it will do so without altering its appearance. Unlike some other materials, it does not rust or otherwise erode due to exposure to the elements; thus, it will not be a problem for those constructions that employ glass.
A glass faade has a major benefit in delivering green buildings and conserving energy usage, especially lighting[footnoteRef:6]. This benefit is especially appreciated in large buildings where a significant fraction of energy consumption is in lighting. With a glass faade, a building will use the suns natural light to light up the buildings interior. In huge constructions, contemporary glass is amazing at managing temperature. Its wonderful to assist businesses in meeting the stringent commercial energy use standards. Itll become much more popular in the coming years as these regulations tighten in response to public demand. These two properties of glass can save a lot of energy that would otherwise be utilized for artificial lighting and temperature control. [6: Constro Facilitator, Glass facade; An overview of advantage and types. 2021, December 7. ]
The other and probably the most important benefit of glass faade is the aesthetic value it confers to a building. Glass facades are some of the best-looking solutions available, in addition to being functionally strong and incredibly beneficial in a variety of practice areas[footnoteRef:7]. Glass building facades give off a sleek, modern vibe that appeals to a wide range of potential customers. The customizable pieces allow architectural designers to create any design building-owners choose, resulting in a modern aesthetic that will stand out from afar and up close. [7: Ibid]
Shortcomings of glass faade
Due to the high temperatures required for processing the raw materials, glass manufacturing is a very energy-intensive operation. Compared to the other materials used in construction, glass is a costly material. As a result, the overall cost of the structure may rise.
Glass is a fragile, stiff, and rigid material. When put under stress, it snaps without causing undue strain. As a result, glass is less impact-resistant, and its ability to endure an immediately applied load is limited. When it comes into contact with an object, it will immediately break. Glass is extremely hazardous in earthquake-prone areas[footnoteRef:8]. Unfortunately, there has been no technological innovation that can make Glass an earthquake-resistant material. It can, however, be adjusted to a degree so that it can resist small-scale earthquakes with some pricey treatment. Finally, broken glass can be exceedingly sharp, increasing the risk of injury. [8: Mehran Arbab and James J. Finley. “Glass in architecture.”International Journal of Applied Glass Science1, no. 1 (2010): 118-129.]
Types of glass used in facades
Curtain walls are non-load bearing curtain-like constructions linked to the buildings floor where the faade will be installed. Such facades must only support their weight, not the dead load imposed by the structue[footnoteRef:9]. The curtain wall is connected to the buildings columns and floors, allowing the weight of the wind to be transmitted from the faade. Wind and water resistance are provided by these sorts of facades, which are aesthetically beautiful and useful. Glass facades give resistance to seismic stresses and are a heat barrier. [9: AISwebapp, AN ARCHITECTS GUIDE TO GLASS FAADE. AIS, (2020, Feb. 1) < https://www.aisglass.com/an-architects-guide-to-glass-facade/>]
Figure 2: Curtain wall glass facade. Adopted from Constro Facilitator[footnoteRef:10] [10: Constro Facilitator, Glass facade; An overview of advantage and types. (2021, December 7)]
This is another non-load-bearing faade that is predominantly used on the bottom floor. When constructed with specialized glasses, it extends between the ground and the roof of the building above it, providing maximum thermal and acoustic insulation. It is a cost-effective alternative that may be tailored to the clients preferences.
Figure 3:Storefront wall glass facade. Adopted from Constro Facilitator[footnoteRef:11] [11: Ibid]
1. Stick systems
Vertical support mullions frame these sorts of glass facades. These extrusions are normally built wholly away from the installation location. The mullions are then transported to the construction site and installed glass panels. Vertical extrusions are typically supported by horizontal frames, resulting in glass framed on both sides. The mullions used in stick systems are often formed of aluminum, steel, concrete, or wood. All of these materials can be used, depending on the stylistic preference. Because of their high prices, structured silicone, toggle-locked, bolted, or pressure-capped stick systems are used in mid-rise or low-rise buildings.
Figure 4: Stick system glass facade. Adopted from Constro Facilitator[footnoteRef:12] [12: Ibid]
1. Unitized system
As the name implies, such glass facades are often manufactured in a factory and then transported to the installation location. This means that unitized systems arrive at the building ready to be installed. In tall buildings, the continuous system might span numerous floors. Unitized-framed facades can also have vents and windows fitted. Because the complete framing system is built in a factory under regulated climatic conditions, elements such as moisture and air resistance may be included. The completed systems are typically transported to the site using mobile street cranes, tower cranes, or monorails.
Figure 5: United system glass facade. Adopted from Constro Facilitator[footnoteRef:13] [13: Ibid]
1. Semi-unitized system
Semi-unitized systems combine the best characteristics of both stick and unitized systems. This sort of glass facade is encased in a stick-made aluminum cassette. At the plant, the glass is filled into the cassettes. Individual cassettes are then transported to the construction site and assembled with other cassettes. Gaskets seal one metal casing to another, allowing for quick and safe assembly and installation. Structural silicone is required for these types of systems during the installation procedure.
Frameless glazing is an effective approach to increase the amount of natural light transmitted through a structure while minimizing the impact on both the internal and external aesthetics of the glass structure.
Figure 6: frameless facade. Adopted from Constro Facilitator[footnoteRef:14] [14: Ibid]
These facades use high tension cables or stainless steel rods to put weights on the main structure. As a result, the amount of solid structural parts visible on the project is reduced, boosting the facades transparency. Tension rod facades and cable net walls are the two most used forms in the industry.
Figure 7: Tension glass facade. Adopted from Constro Facilitator[footnoteRef:15] [15: Ibid]
Sustainability of glass in buildings
Glass is a long-lasting, entirely recyclable material with numerous environmental benefits, including helping mitigate climate change and conserving natural resources. Glass is 100 percent recyclable and does not degrade while being recycled. Consequently, it can be recycled multiple times without sacrificing quality or purity. Its inert nature and commitment to safeguarding the health and well-being of inhabitants are likewise highly valued in many applications[footnoteRef:16]. However, the widespread use of glass in buildings may work against worldwide attempts to create sustainable and green structures. Most experts agree that glass faade buildings do not match most climates because they need a lot of energy to cool and heat. Because heat is transported to the exteriors very slowly, opaque walls result in decreased energy use. [16: N. Sudharsan, T. Palanisamy, and S. C. Yaragal. “Environmental sustainability of waste glass as a valuable construction material-A critical review.”Ecology, Environment and Conservation24 (2018): S331-S338.]
Case study of The Shard
The Shard is a mixed-use structure. Its designed to be a vertical metropolis where people can live, work, and relax. One of the Shards most distinctive features is open vents between sloping glass faces. The visual quality and shape of the tower are defined by eight splinters of glass. The massive 36.000M2 double ventilated faade uses low-iron crystals with a mechanical roller blind in the hollow to give sun protection[footnoteRef:17]. 11,000 glass plates were utilized to coat the walls, providing natural ventilation to the winter gardens. Many of these are slanted solar panels properly oriented to the sun deck, resulting in a wide area of renewable energy. [17: Leslie Tijerina, A. Silvas, H.J.A. Mahmoudi, S. Sadri & B. Yaghmaei. The Shard at London Bridge. ARCH-631 (Fall 2016). ]
A single skin on the outside and a sealed double-glazed unit on the interior were used to create triple-glazed panels. As wing walls, the shards were extended beyond the margins of the floor plates, giving the individual faade planes more visual character. Each floor level has a 300 mm wide outside chamber that is aired. When the sun heats the air in the cavity, it rises and escapes out the top of the panels vent, pulling cool air in at the bottom[footnoteRef:18]. A roller blind is also installed in the cavity, controlled by the building management system (BMS) to limit solar gain further. Users of the shard can raise a blind to see the vista, but the BMS lowers it after a brief time. [18: Ibid]
Use of glass faade
The tower boasts all-glass facades on all four sides, with 11,000 faade pieces totaling 80,000 square meters of glass[footnoteRef:19]. The Shards panels are comprised of low-iron glass with internal blinds, which provide additional external strength to the skyscraper. Furthermore, the glass facade helps maximize daylight, attain the highest BREEAM certification for the building (which examines and verifies its sustainability), and improve the working environment for staff. Moreover, the Shards glass exterior offered more visual value to the London skyline. As a result, architectural engineers have characterized the structure as a lovely addition to the London skyline. [19: The Shard, Permesteelisa Group, (n.d.). < https://www.permasteelisagroup.com/project-detail?project=791>]
Justification for the glass faade
Design, architectural, and technical criteria
The primary features that the glass faade brings for The Shard are high performance and transparency. The Shards plan is an irregular, eight-sided polygon, with each glass segment, or shard! sloping in a different direction and being exposed to the sun differently. The eight glazed facades gradually taper as they approach the buildings top. They resemble a massive deck of cards, with each layer tilting inwards at different angles. The unique characeristic of this glass castle is that the shards never come into contact with one another, allowing the wind stress on broad stretches of converging flat glass surfaces to be avoided. A double-skin facade is created by wrapping an inner curtain wall around the structure, filling in the spaces left by the outer fragments. The fracture sections, where the external shards shattered, are occupied by winter gardens and conference rooms.
The Shards asymmetric volume required a highly sophisticated glazed envelope design. Around 11000 units were designed, engineered, manufactured, and installed across the eight shards, many of which were one-off production elements. The Shards envelope is a double-skin passive system. This was required to meet the exceptionally high transparency requirement, which would have been impossible to achieve with an active double-skin facade with a mechanical ventilation system. The envelopes beauty comes in its complexity, as it is far from a straightforward design with numerous execution obstacles.
Aspects of the buildings
The other justification for using the glass faade was the prominent position The Shard occupies in the London Skyline and the London landscape. The structure is among the tallest buildings in London, and thus, there was an architectural need for the structure to present the skyline with the aesthetic value it needed, thus making a glass faade the best option. Second, the structure is located in the neighborhood of the London Bridge, the Westminster Hall, and the Parliament Building. These structures hold a prominent position in Londons structural and architectural image of London and the U.K.; thus, it would go without saying that the visual value that comes with a glass faade was justified.
Disadvantages and advantages
The primary disadvantage of The Shards glass faade is that the exterior surface of the faade has to be cleaned manually, considering there are 11,000 panels of glass. This is a security concern for the glass cleaners, especially bearing in mind the cleaner who was left dangling on the 72nd floor when his cradle developed a mechanical fault due to high winds, a few days to the official opening date.
Despite this concern, the futuristic glass casing of the structure is triple-glazed and low-iron laminated, meaning it has a colorless low emissivity that reduces infrared heat loss. Computer-controlled roller blinds eliminate the need for air conditioning to avoid excessive heat buildup from solar energy. These glass fiber blinds are integrated into the glass facade and covered by single glazing, lowering solar radiation by 95%[footnoteRef:20]. When night falls, the blinds are rolled up to enable the days heat to escape. The Shards passive sun-shading mechanism has helped it to exceed the Part L directives 2006 standards by more than 25%. [20: Ben Hoskin, How the shard was built andthe problems they faced. (n.d.).]
The glass faade has provided Londoners with a spectacular birds eye view of their city. The Shard has a viewing gallery on the top floors, just below the spire, an advantage conferred by the glass faade.
The ultimate effects of using a glass faade
The ultimate effects of The Shards glass faade can be considered in four fundamental principles; wind, visual comfort, thermal comfort, and solar radiation[footnoteRef:21]. The inner atmosphere is separated from the outer environment by a glass facade for the building envelope. Differences in the two environments create environmental burdens. Temperature, moisture, and air pressure are the three most essential environmental loads. Both exterior temperature factors [i.e., outside air temperature, solar radiation, and wind] and interior temperature factors [i.e., occupant activities, ventilation, and heating equipment] contribute to temperature load. Therefore, the ultimate effects of The Shards glass faade are the architectural phenomenon and the aesthetic value achieved through the glass faade, which provides comfort to residents of The Shard and Londoners in general. [21: Mohamed Ahmed Alaa El Din Ahmed, and Mohamed Anwar Fikry. “Impact of glass facades on internal environment of buildings in hot arid zone.”Alexandria Engineering Journal58, no. 3 (2019): 1063-1075.]
Technical drawings of glass fittings and techniques used
The Shards envelope is a double-skin passive system. This was required to meet the exceptionally high transparency requirement, which would have been impossible to achieve with an active double-skin facade with a mechanical ventilation system. Shard Cladding, Shard Skirt Cladding, Spire Cladding, Back-Pack Plant Cladding, Fracture Cladding, winter-garden Cladding, wing Wall Facade, Roof Steps, and Soffits, Lower Level Facade Curtainwall Systems, Canopies, Internal wall System Lobby, Steel-Framed Wall, Unitized Lower Level Cladding, Lower Level Louvre Cladding are among the fourteen different types of the facade on the Shard[footnoteRef:22]. [22: The Shard, Permesteelisa Group, (n.d.). < https://www.permasteelisagroup.com/project-detail?project=791>]
The technical aspects used in installing the glass faade are the unitized system (figure 8 below) and the double-skin faade (figure 9 below) integrated with blinds.
Figure 8: Unitized Glass Facade of The Shard, London. Adopted from Tijerina and colleagues[footnoteRef:23]. [23: Tijerina, et al. The Shard at London Bridge. ARCH-631 (Fall 2016).]
Figure 9: The Shards double-skin facade. Adopted from Kilaire and Stacey[footnoteRef:24]
[24: A. Kilaire and M. Stacey. “Design of a prefabricated passive and active double skin faade system for UK offices.”Journal of Building Engineering12 (2017): 161-170.]
The Shard, Permesteelisa Group, (n.d.). < https://www.permasteelisagroup.com/project-detail?project=791>
Ahmed, Mohamed Ahmed Alaa El-Din, and Mohamed Anwar Fikry. Impact of glass facades on internal environment of buildings in hot arid zone.Alexandria Engineering Journal58, no. 3 (2019): 1063-1075.
AISwebapp, AN ARCHITECTS GUIDE TO GLASS FAADE. AIS, (2020, Feb. 1) < https://www.aisglass.com/an-architects-guide-to-glass-facade/>
Arbab, Mehran, and James J. Finley. Glass in architecture.International Journal of Applied Glass Science1, no. 1 (2010): 118-129.
Constro Facilitator, Glass facade; An overview of advantage and types. (2021, December 7).
Friedman, Alice T.American Glamour and the Evolution of Modern Architecture. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2010.
Hoskin, B. How the shard was built andthe problems they faced. (n.d.).
Kilaire, A., and M. Stacey. Design of a prefabricated passive and active double skin faade system for U.K. offices.Journal of Building Engineering12 (2017): 161-170.
Leslie, Thomas. As Large as the Situation of the Columns Would Allow: Building Cladding and Plate Glass in the Chicago Skyscraper, 18851905.Technology and Culture49, no. 2 (2008): 399-419.
Mijovic, D. D., D. Milanovic, and S. Jelena. Curtain walls: history and a continuing challenge. InXVIII Int. Sci. Conf.” Construction Archit. VSU 2018, pp. 1-6. 2018.
Naqash, Muhammad Tayyab, Antonio Formisano, and Ehsan Noroozinejad Farsangi. Structural assessment of glass used in faade industry. InStructures, vol. 33, pp. 4817-4827. Elsevier, 2021.
Savi?, Jelena, Danijela ?uri?-Mijovi?, and Veliborka Bogdanovi?. Architectural glass: Types, performance and legislation.Facta Universitatis-series: Architecture and Civil Engineering11, no. 1 (2013): 35-45.
Sudharsan, N., T. Palanisamy, and S. C. Yaragal. Environmental sustainability of waste glass as a valuable construction material-A critical review.Ecology, Environment and Conservation24 (2018): S331-S338.
Tijerina, L., A. Silvas, H.J.A. Mahmoudi, S. Sadri & B. Yaghmaei. The Shard at London Bridge. ARCH-631 (Fall 2016).
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