Philosophy Course Review Essay
Ethics in philosophy involves understanding what is good and bad. It is the role of human being to discover a mechanism or modify discovered mechanisms of identifying the morally right or wrong incidences. Moral ethics is the major knowledge on understanding the right thoughts, facts and events. Moral ethics finds its major arguments basing on knowledge of Plato, Aristotle, John Stuart, and Jeremy Bentham. Virtue ethics emerges as a branch of ethical philosophy and is helpful in decision making processes. Major conflicts between parties emerge from differences in ethical approach of solving the situation. Virtue ethical application in real life situation involves treating an insured patient after conviction that it is professional obligation to help people in need. A doctor will treat a patient in pain even if the person has no money to pay for the services. Ethics in philosophy attempts to explain ways human beings should live in the society (O’Toole, 2006).
Meta-ethics in philosophy analyses the foundations, status, and moral values present in the society. Morality in meta-ethics involves making correct judgement that sounds good and humane. Meta-ethics explains the activities taking place to explain the terms ‘good’ and ‘right’. The foundation of moral values emerges from the understanding of the meta-ethics in the society. The foundation involves secular foundation, biological, and political issues. Meta-ethics flourishes the morality in the society and cross-cuts the cultural differences among the communities. The major challenges in the morality understanding process is the cultural superiority and divergent moral activities. Meta-ethics involve analytical understanding of the moral values and principles (O’Toole, 2006). Great debates on the moral language and scientific trends inspire philosophers to refocus on the disciplines present in meta-ethics. The understanding of meta-ethics in the society involves creating moral guidance and justifications that are acceptable in across the communities (Sue, 2006).
Cultural variance creates differences in the thinking process between parties. Differences in culture result in philosophical usage of intuitions in creating knowledge and references on existing theories. An example of cultural variance is in the management of mental health issues. The mental treatment process requires understanding the cultural background of the patient and the dilemmas existing in the community. Cultural awareness and beliefs are personal and help in elimination of biasness within the community. Cultural awareness assist medical doctors in offering efficient counselling process and create a lasting relationship between the doctor and the patient. In addition, understanding the culture of the client gives a preview on the expectation during the counselling process. Considering cultural background of the clients assists in solving critical problems that do not require consumption of pharmaceutical drugs. In some situations, cultural practice may conflict with the modernized mind-set resulting argument. A professional doctor will try to integrate the cultural practice in the modern society and convince the client on accepting change in the society (Sue, 2006).
Self-interest is a virtue of selfishness and involve reasoning towards individual profits. No forces exist towards understanding selfish interests and the reasoning of all the experimentation. Selfishness describes the person’s freedom, self-esteem and purpose of living. Individual’s interest may involve supporting family activities, participating in charity and amassing wealth. Major activities in selfish perspective violate the ethical consideration of dealing with people in the society (Sue, 2006). Producing quality goods and services results to happiness in the community and encourages an individual in the production process. Ethical considerations, involves eliminating the selfish gain and installing encouragement virtues for the benefit of all members in the community. Selfishness in the community affects the social aspect and economic growth. Cooperation is the ultimate virtue of creating a good community that is socially active and encourages economic advances (Rosenstand, 2009).
Reasoning in philosophy involves consciousness. To be able to reason, a person must look at the rationality and objectivity of their actions. Conscious thoughts are part of philosophical debates and require experimental approach. Experimentation involves interviews, observation and questionnaire on how people understand reasoning and consciousness in philosophy. The mind-set of individuals is different hence creating diversity in the understanding process. Philosopher like Justin Systma is developing new strategies of studying the reasoning aspect in philosophy. Globally, the thinking and reasoning process of the western communities is different from that of eastern communities. Reasoning aspect in philosophy involve framing the presence or absence of essential information in a context. Reasoning involves uncovering the cognitive thinking that guides individuals in decision making process. Simple processes like eye movement, interactive behaviour describes the reasoning process of the individual. Some individuals are sensitive in the study process and special consideration is essential to avoid arousing anger or change of behaviour (Rosenstand, 2009).
Morality involves character, behaviour and mannerism of an individual. Morality demand that behaviours is acceptable to the society and no one feels hurt by the actions of another. Morality determines the intentions, actions and decisions of a person. Morality leads to develop of code of conduct in philosophical perspective. Code of conduct creates a universal agreement on behaviour and mannerism of individuals in the society. Morality in philosophy enhances the virtues of goodness and rightness (Rosenstand, 2009). Philosophers give explanation of morality and create awareness of difference in moral understanding and principles in various communities. Morality in philosophy involves moral epistemology and deontological ethics. The moral epistemology explains the cognitive process in the mete-ethics and deontological ethics results to establishment of rules in moral philosophy. Personality in morality aspect is essential since it determines independence in decision making process and observation in moral ethics. Flexibility in morality aspect is essential especially in the twenty-first century due to presence of mingling among communities and nationalities (Dale Jamieson, 2008).
Human rights are a philosophical consideration in the community. Human rights give an individual freedom of interaction and making decisions on the course of action to take in major activities. These rights are deemed universal and undeniable. They are entitlements that cannot be denied or given as privilege. United Nations is on the frontline in ensuring every citizen has freedom of expression and obtains essential commodities in life. The universal human right is peace. Peace is essential in the community and neighbourhood. Presence of peace creates avenues of economic growth and human interaction (Dale Jamieson, 2008). Every person in the world have right to seek equal justice, job opportunity and deserves respect. Discrimination is the ultimate killer of democracy in the world; it results to racial discrimination and formation of social classes. Right of movement within the country of resident is essential and enhances development within the country. Peaceful organizations and associations are essential in maintain cohesive living among different cultures. Such organizations promote positive coexistence and lobby for observation of every human right. Any form of discrimination that breaches these rights may affect peaceful living in the society. The peace organisations must therefore ensure that peace realised is not cosmetic but real. The organisations must push for justice for war victims, constitutionalism and rule of law.
Political philosophy involve understanding the aspects of politics, judiciary and, legal authorities in the society. The government has a role in providing standards of conducting legal justice and political arena. The standards should observe ethical considerations of the people and should allow democracy. In political philosophy, visions on good social life are the major targets on the mind of many philosophers. The institutional reviews on political aspect should engage both men and women in the voting rights and decision-making process of major issues in the institution. Political philosophy engages law philosophy and economic philosophy in making major theories affecting the political climate of the country. Ethical consideration in political philosophy is creation of good life, sustainable projects, and human rights. Political philosophy discourages detrimental politics that leads to broadening the gap between rich and poor in the community. Good character and happiness are part of ethical considerations in political philosophy (Dale Jamieson, 2008).
Religion is part of philosophical consideration in studies involving multi-religious groups. Philosophical view should encourage religious diversity and interaction among individuals of different religious denominations. Religion should be viewed as a means of attaining human purity and self-consciences. It should promote inner dialogue , quest for self-identity and purpose in life. Human rights advocates respect of other religious movements and create a peaceful coexistence. Nurturing of religious beliefs requires frequent practising; the government should provide religious grounds to allow practice of religious rites. The religious rites are broad and engage faithful followers of the religious cult. Moreover, philosophy of religion involves theistic and non-theistic practices from the global approach. Religious language is vague and imprecise in mystery; it is meaningless to non-believers. Religious statements and claims are not empirically verifiable; they require strong believe. Compassionate is the universal theme in major religious groups and encourage their members to practice the disciplines within the religious cult. Positivism is a radical explanation that requires verification in the religious language. Philosophical explanation of religious language involves understanding the concepts of the religious group (Bradshaw, 2014).
Authenticity in philosophy means genuineness. It deals with facts, logics and reasoning. The trueness in own personality and character creates self-confidence and acceptance in the society. Facing reality and accepting opinions from the members of the community creates advancement in raising personal self-esteem. Authenticity involves finding the truth and accepting conventional morality in an attempt of validating good virtues in the society. Authenticity is essential in the community and if it lacks it creates existentialism or bad faith (O’Toole, 2006).
Bradshaw, J. (2014, January 8). Religious Accommodation Or Accessory To Sexism? York
Student’s Case Stirs Debate. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/education/religious-accommodation-or-accessory-to-sexism-york-students-case-stirs-debate/article16246401/
Dale Jamieson. (2008). Ethics And The Environment: An Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge
O’Toole, B. (2006). Four Ways We Approach Ethics. Journal Of Dental Education, 70(11),
Rosenstand, N. (2009). The Moral Of The Story: An Introduction To Ethics. New York, NY:
Sue, S. (2006). Cultural Competency: From Philosophy To Research And Practice. Journal of Community Psychology, 34(2), 237-245.
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