Cybersecurity Organizational Change Concept

Modernization Theory

Support managers, involve stakeholders, address resistance, celebrate victories and define the objective

Give focus and support to individuals involved in the change

Know the needs of all stakeholders

Start at the top

Change has to be implemented correctly and follow a process so as not to stall or be met with resistance (Schantz, 2018)

Change is required

Organizational Change

IT workers have to be more involved in making computers and networks safer for users

Anyone who uses the Internet is at risk of being hacked

Health care providers, IT workers, administrators, patients and all stakeholders have to be more aware of the cybersecurity risks attendant the use of multiple

medical devices (Shindell, 2018)

Medical devices can be hacked

(Anderson & Williams, 2018)Part I: Concept Map


Part II: Explaining the Concept Map

The Relationship of Parts

Cybersecurity, Organizational Change and Modernization Theory

As the concept map shows, cybersecurity, organizational change and Rostow’s modernization theory are all interrelated and flow into and out of one another. In fact, each depends on the other to make sense. Cybersecurity explains the goal of organizational change and yet without the concept of cybersecurity there would be no reason for organizational change: the relationship between the two is thus symbiotic. Modernization theory likewise informs both because it supplies the rationale for both cybersecurity and organizational change, while both simultaneously inform modernization theory as they are what make it possible for the strategies to be discovered to make modernization possible in the first place.

Cybersecurity. Cybersecurity is further developed into parts based on what computers can do and why cybersecurity is needed. The concept map defines these parts as four:

1) people use the Internet with the aid of computers,

2) medical personnel use devices that communicate with one another (Anderson and Williams, 2018),

3) medical personnel and computer users (including IT workers) have to be aware of the threats to cybersecurity and be informed on ways to make users safer (Shindell, 2018), and

4) cybersecurity protects users against hacking.

These parts are defined so as to explain what cybersecurity is in relation to what is expected of computers and digital machines today—i.e., in other words, the more integrated our machines become, the more important it is that we become familiar with the concept of cybersecurity and what it can do (Ten, Manimaran & Liu, 2010).

Organizational change. The concept of organizational change is explained in the concept map as indicating that (a) change is required in organizations for a reason, and (b) that change has to implemented in certain manner so that it can be effectively conducted (Schantz, 2018).

Following from these points are the steps that are to be adhered to when conducting organizational change:

1) Change has to start at the top—i.e., with the executives running the organization so that they are aware of what’s needed, why and how to support the change process

2) Change cannot take place without first knowing the needs and viewpoints of all stakeholders—otherwise they might throw up an obstacle to change in the form of resistance that change managers did foresee

3) Individuals within the change process have to be the focus, as they are the ones who will be implementing the change—therefore, it is critical that they receive the necessary support from those above them

4) Managers have to be supported from above as well—i.e., the executives at the top—so that they can lead effectively

5) The change management plan should have procedures in place for dealing with the potential of resistance

6) Victories should be celebrated, no matter how small, so as to ensure that morale is boosted along the way

7) Stakeholders have to be involved in on-going discussions and dialogues so that that process is not hindered by surprise objections from stakeholders who do not like what is going on

8) The ultimate objective has to be defined for all so that everyone knows what the point and purpose of the change is

This last point in the process is crucial and helps to explain why education is so critical in any change management process. The understanding that is obtained in the cybersecurity section of the concept map has to translate into understanding under the organizational change part of the map. For this reason the two flow into and out of one another in a kind of communicative exchange.

Modernization theory. Modernization theory is the umbrella that explains and provides shelter to both cybersecurity as a development and to organizational change as a process. The theory of modernization put forward by Rostow explains that invention is the source of change—i.e., that as technology develops, changes in organizations occur because they have to adapt to the new tools being used in the environment. That is why organizations have to be flexible and adaptive to their environments—no world is stagnant; new ideas are always percolating and impacting the world (Dooley, 1997).

Discovery, moreover, is what facilitates change: so the theory explains how cybersecurity develops and how it in turn impacts change in the organization and how both go on to reinforce the idea of modernization by the fact of diffusion—i.e., the culture surrounding the invention is impacted by it and obliged to change to adapt to what it brings. The Internet obliged the world to adapt in numerous ways, and made communication and business easier—but it also created new challenges and risks that had to be addressed via cybersecurity and organizational change. Thus, modernization theory explains the process involved in how invention leads to change, which leads to modernization.

In the context of cybersecurity, the invention is established—digital communications among computers and the need for secure systems; the strategy has to be identified by IT and shared throughout the organization; and the strategy has to be duplicated and implemented throughout the network in order to be meaningful and effective.

The Parts Come Together

The parts come together as cybersecurity becomes the goal, organizational change becomes the method for achieving the goal, and modernization theory explains the rationale for the method. These parts achieve a whole through simultaneous interaction. There is no one part that can be taken from the others and explained by itself; on the contrary, all parts are needed together to understand the whole.


The concept map provides insight regarding the specialization area by showing how all ideas are interrelated and how they feed into one another. No single area can be viewed in isolation of the others, so it is crucial for a specialized area to be mindful of what factors and parts are impacting the area and are impacted by the area of specialization.

Connecting Theory and Practice

The theory of modernization is related to the concept of practice in that it explains the practice and how it comes about. The practice relies upon theory for a reasonable perspective as to why it is being conducted or implemented in the first place. Without the theory, there is no proper perspective to make sense of the interconnectedness of the parts, and without the parts of the practice there is no need for theory. So in this sense they interlock and work together to produce a meaningful whole.

Influence of a Visionary Leader

A visionary leader is suggested by all areas of the concept map—from the need to understand cybersecurity to the oversight of the organizational change process to the explanation of the modernization theory that holds it all together. A visionary leader is always required to supply followers with a sense of what the organization is trying to achieve, which, in this case, is the goal of cybersecurity. In an organization, a transformative leader is one who can supply that vision and the means or inspiration required to motivate the people to achieve it (Bass, 1999).

An organization must have a visionary leader who is able to realize when a change is required and what that change must be. The organization must also have the same kind of leader who is capable of overseeing that change process by following the steps listed in the organizational change area. Without such a leader, the theory cannot be implemented to explain how the working parts go together and the goal of cybersecurity cannot be defined or even identified as a need. A leader who is not visionary will simply be one who is willing to accept the status quo and not make any changes to address an obvious need.


Anderson, S., & Williams, T. (2018). Cybersecurity and medical devices: Are the

ISO/IEC 80001-2-2 technical controls up to the challenge?. Computer Standards & Interfaces, 56, 134-143.

Bass, B. M. (1999). Two decades of research and development in transformational

leadership. European journal of work and organizational psychology, 8(1), 9-32.

Dooley, K. J. (1997). A complex adaptive systems model of organization

change. Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, 1(1), 69-97.

Schantz, J. (2018). How can leaders manage change successfully?, 8-9.

Shindell, R. (2018). Wearable devices: The next wave of cybercrime. Journal of

AHIMA, 24-27.

Ten, C. W., Manimaran, G., & Liu, C. C. (2010). Cybersecurity for critical

infrastructures: Attack and defense modeling. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics-Part A: Systems and Humans, 40(4), 853-865.

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