Diabetes in the African American Community

Decreasing Diabetes in the African American Community Through Health Education

Despite aggressive public health awareness campaigns in recent years as well as intensive research concerning efficacious treatments, the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) continues to increase among the African American population in general and among black males in particular. In fact, more than 3 million African Americans currently suffer from T2DM and this population is twice as likely to experience severe complication such as lower extremity amputations, blindness and end-stage renal disease as a result of their disease compared to whites. Although every individual is unique, of course, there is growing recognition among public health educators that far too many African Americans fail to recognize the effects of lifestyle choices on the severity of this chronic disease. The purpose of this paper is to review a study by Collins-McNeil, J. et al. (2013) which sought to fill the knowledge gap concerning the ways in which individual lifestyles can exacerbate the problems that many African Americans suffering from T2DM and the challenges they typically experience in making lifestyle changes to better manage their disease. Following the review, the paper provides a summary of the studys findings in the conclusion.

1. What was the purpose of the study?

In response to the sustained increase in the prevalence of T2DM among African American males, Collins-McNeil, J. et al. (2013) used a pilot study to evaluate the feasibility of using a 12-week diabetes self-management educational initiative in a church-based cultural targeted (CBCT) program setting designed for African American males in their middle and older ages.

2. What research methodology did the author(s) use?

The 12-week diabetes self-management educational initiative was piloted with a sample which is described next below. The researchers collected qualitative data using focus groups following the completion of the intervention. The researchers also collected quantitative data at baseline as well as again at 12 weeks at the conclusion of the programming. The CBCT intervention consisted of a healthy eating module consisting of education concerning optimal culturally sensitive diets for diabetic individuals, how to read labels, planning meals, maintaining food logs to identify opportunities for improvement, controlling dietary fats and counting carbohydrates. In addition, the intervention also provided guidance concerning stress management techniques, the importance of increased physical activity, coping skills and education about diabetes that were specifically targeted at middle age and older African American males.

3. Who was the sample?

The same for this pilot test was comprised of 12 African-American adults (10 women and two men) aged 35 to 68 years in urban churches located in the Southeastern US.

4. What data were collected and how?

The quantitative data for this mixed methods study were collected at baseline and at 12 weeks and included questionnaires and anthropometric measures. In addition, the researchers also collected qualitative data using a focus group. In addition, the researchers used a series of questionnaires and scales with demonstrated reliability and validity to collect physical activity level data, demographic information as well as stress, depression and anxiety levels among the respondents.

5. What analysis was conducted?

The quantitative data from the questionnaires and scales were analyzed using instrument-specific statistical analyses. The qualitative data the emerged from the post-intervention focus group was synthesized with the qualitative data analysis and relevant quotations from the focus group participants were reported verbatim.

6. What were the main findings?

The main findings that emerged from this study confirmed the feasibility of using a 12-week diabetes self-management educational initiative to improve self-care among African Americans with T2DM. In this regard, Collins-McNeil, J. et al. (2013) report that, Interventions focused on diabetes self-management education, physical activity, behavioral management, and emotional regulation can be implemented in the community and can lead to improvements in self-care management, emotional distress and physical health in African-American adults with T2DM (p. 7).

7. What were the strengths and weaknesses of the study?

The main strengths of this study included the use of culturally specific education as well as the use of questionnaires and scales with proven reliability and validity. The main weaknesses of this study included the relatively small number of subjects and the limitation to a specific region of the country, suggesting that the findings may not be fully generalizable for all African American populations in the United States.

8. How is the study related to the Public Health Intervention and Policy Project topic?

The research showed that T2DM is a serious a public health threat, especially among the African American community which requires additional research to identify efficacious public health interventions, a reality that also makes it a relevant and timely policy project topic.


More than 3 million African Americans currently suffer from Type 2 diabetes mellitus and this number continues to increase year to year for reasons that remain unclear. The research was consistent in showing that the severity of the complications that are caused by this disease are exacerbated by unhealthy lifestyle choices, making interventions that focus on improving these choices an important public health issue.



Collins-McNeil, J. et al. (2013, May 30). A Culturally Targeted Self-Management Program for African Americans with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 44(4), 126-141.

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper