Drug use and the Black American male 5 pages

old African-American male, the client represents a seriously underserved population cohort when it comes to providing effective substance abuse prevention and intervention support. According to Williams & Chang (2000), research on adolescent substance abuse treatment is sparse. Available evidence is even scantier when addressing the needs of non-white youth. Yet to be effective, interventions need to be tailored to the specific population.

Empirical evidence supporting a comprehensive and effective substance abuse intervention for the adolescent cohort began with an evaluation of the case. The client has experienced trauma, which should be taken into consideration while developing a treatment plan and during the course of treatment. At the age of twelve, the client’s mother’s sister in law and her two children — the client’s cousins — were murdered. The client was deeply affected by the event, as was his family. It took a decade before the perpetrator of the crime was brought to justice, leading to many years of unresolved psychological pain for the entire family. The client admits that his unresolved bitterness adversely affected his behavior and likely led to his behavioral problems starting in adolescence soon after the crisis.

In addition to the personal experience with trauma, socio-cultural and socio-economic factors should be taken into consideration when developing a treatment plan and intervention. Unemployment, underemployment, poverty, and discrimination disproportionately affect the African-American communities in the United States and are linked, possibly causally, to the display of behavioral problems including substance use and abuse (Costen, 2009). Moreover, incarceration and the criminal justice system in general are used disproportionately for the young African-American male cohort, versus the use of substance use treatment and professional psychological interventions. Yet psychological interventions prove far more effective in reducing rates of relapse in substance abuse; research has shown that those who entered substance abuse programs on a doctor or other medical providers’ recommendation tended to stay the longest in treatment and have the best outcomes (Cooper, MacMaster, & Rasch, 2009). Clients like these should be seeing psychologists instead of parole or corrections officers. Therefore, one of the core treatment goals will be to eliminate the time the client spends in the criminal justice system and maximize time spent in the care of qualified practitioners.

Strengths and protective factors in the African-American community can provide social support systems in lieu of, or in addition to, psychological counseling. The African-American community usually exhibits strong interdependence, including the use of extended family unit living that can provide ongoing social support. The client in this case should be encouraged to rely on the pre-existing social and family networks as part of the recovery process. At the same time, it is strongly recommended that the client have access to an initial in-patient treatment program. In-patient treatment programs provide the necessary separation from triggers and stressors and can therefore help the client to envision and practice a life without relying on substances to cope. It is then strongly recommended that the client have a structured exit strategy involving transitioning from the in-patient to outpatient status. This would involve ongoing therapy and heavy involvement in his community, ideally through his family’s church.

It is strongly recommended that the client commit to a three-week in-patient treatment program followed by a minimum of one year in outpatient activities that include, but are not limited to, church-based activities and interventions. Research has shown that the more time a substance abuser spends in treatment the more successful s/he usually is at remaining in recovery (Cooper, MacMaster, & Rasch, 2009). For the client’s treatment to be successful, he will need consistency in his case managers and continuity of care. For the client to “buy into” the treatment plan, he will need the support of his family, mentors, and ideally, peer group too. The client reports a healthy relationship with his family, including his parents and sister. He also attends church regularly.

Another way for the client to commit fully to his treatment program is through the creation of routine and structured leisure time. The client currently works in a steady job, which will provide some protective factors such as routine and time insulated from the triggers or temptations to use. He reports taking pleasure in his work as a mechanic and therefore, improving his skill levels and attaining career advancement will help improve the client’s confidence and self-esteem, leading to a greater likelihood he can envision a life without depending on drugs for his identity or ability to cope. The client should be encouraged to explore art, music, theater, and other expressive hobbies that can engage his body, mind, and emotions without the use of drugs. The client can be actively engaged in creating a leisure time plan for himself, by alerting his counselors to his hobbies and interests.

In fact, his leisure time might present some risk factors that the treatment plan is designed to ameliorate. The client has reported that he played football and baseball throughout high school and was on the wrestling team one year. At the time he started using, he chose not to pursue his athletic endeavors. Getting clean might inspire him to reinvest time and energy into athletics. Sports will provide structure in his leisure time, through a mentally and physically healthy activity. Unfortunately, the client has reported that he has a neck injury and experiences chronic pain. It may be necessary to help the client find non-medical ways to manage his pain.

Alternative or complementary medicine may help the client cope with physical and psychological pain. Recommended interventions include acupuncture and relaxation exercises. Yoga, meditation, and other practices may help the client become more aware of his body and mind in ways that help him to manage uncomfortable emotions, feelings, and sensations. Combined with cognitive-behavioral therapy, these interventions can help the client to unearth the dysfunctional thought patterns and belief systems leading to his substance use. The client’s church may have meditation or yoga courses regularly, and the client is encouraged to participate in these programs or any others that he prefers.

To evaluate the efficacy of the practice plan, regular assessments should be used that encourage trust and inspire confidence. Therefore, it is not recommended that the client be required to take drug tests. Instead, the client should be able to admit if and when he does use drugs and talk about the factors that triggered use. The client should be encouraged to keep a journal, writing down his feelings before and after using, if he did use.

More quantitative assessments will involve factors such as absenteeism or performance records from his place of employment, and his level of engagement in structured leisure activities. Interviews and reports from his parents, sister, and other social supports including pastors will also be helpful in providing ongoing program evaluation. Although the reliance on qualitative assessments might be considered unconventional, it is believed that the client needs to develop self-efficacy and trust in the treatment model rather than being coerced into treatment through measures like drug testing. The goal is for the client to move away from the label as “deviant” or “criminal” and towards labels that are constructive for his self-esteem and social development. The most important goals of treatment is improving how the client feels about himself and his future prospects, and helping the client to envision a future in which drug use and behavioral problems are not a part.

Summary and Reflection

Evidence-based practice is the cornerstone of effective care. The first step in the process of gathering empirical evidence was via the use of online databases including Psych Info, PubMed, NCBI, JSTOR, National Institute of Mental Health, National Criminal Justice Reference Service, and Google Scholar. It was disconcerting to have found such little data related to young black males with substance use issues. The research — or lack thereof — shows that clients like this one are chronically underserved by mental health care.

The criminal justice system is not an effective alternative to preventative care or intervention in mental health. In fact, the decriminalization of cannabis is a strongly recommended method of diverting clients like these into mental health instead of the criminal justice system. The client has experienced trauma that was unresolved. Examining the body of evidence for the population cohort shows that most persons in the client’s condition are led through the criminal justice system rather than being offered access to mental health care services. The client therefore highlights some of the structural disparities in health care, and draws attention to some of the ways institutionalized racism has led to pernicious problems with social justice.

Research into the client’s age and ethnic cohort has been remarkably inconclusive due to the prevalence of young African-American males in prison for non-violent drug offenses. Even the most robust studies like Williams & Chang’s (2000) report reveal inadequate follow-up reporting in the vast majority of studies on adolescents with substance abuse problems. These weaknesses in the body of literature make it difficult to definitively say whether in-patient versus out-patient treatment would be preferable. Generally, though, in-patient treatment provides a temporary means by which the client can get “clean,” contemplate ways of living without reliance on drugs, and develop new coping mechanisms in a systematic way removed from the triggers and temptations of being in his typical daily life environment. When the client then pursues outpatient treatment, he may do so with greater confidence in his abilities to remain clean.


Cooper, R. L., MacMaster, S., & Rasch, R. (2009). Racial differences in retention in residential substance abuse treatment: The impact on African-American men. Retrieved from University of North Carolina, Greensboro: http://libres.uncg.edu/ir/uncg/f/R_Rasch_Racial_2009.pdf

Costen, J. A. (2009). Drug use and the Black American male. Retrieved from Kennesaw Sate University: http://ksuweb.kennesaw.edu/~jcosten/papers/paper_drug-use-and-the-black-american-male.pdf

Williams, R. & Chang, S. (2000). Addiction Centre Adolescent Research Group. A Comprehensive and Comparative Review of Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment Outcome. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 7(2): 138-166.

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper