Free and Appropriate Public Education essay

Free and Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) Violations as they Pertain to the Case of Sonya

An educational institution’s principal greatly influences the learning/teaching of every student within the school, for better or for worse. Studies have found that principals’ approach to their post, and its eventual effect on enrolled pupils, is dependent upon their style of leadership. Some styles prove to have more benefits for pupils than others. An especially vulnerable student group is students with special education needs. They are, in fact, so susceptible that regulations are made for their protection, designed specially to look after their education. Such laws foster collaboration, inclusive planning, and shared leadership– leadership traits that have been proven as having the most favorable impact on all students’ outcomes (Schulze, 2014).

The school administrator’s role as an educational leader has an extensive history. Currently, however, the significance of this particular role is greater than ever before, with high stakes examinations increasing all educators’ accountability levels. Urban, rural, and suburban school districts all over the nation are scraping together each dollar they can get; simultaneously, a number of school administrators are vowing that schoolrooms form the district’s most valuable place. Thus, every schoolroom must include highly skilled educators, who are knowledgeable with regard to the curriculum and possess the pedagogical abilities required for teaching, in order that each student gets to learn to his/her utmost potential. As the principal of a community high school situated in a big urban district, and having been in the educational field for several years, my personal experience is that, for attracting and retaining quality educators, an all-inclusive induction strategy must be established. This strategy should include school and district procedures and policies; but emphasis during the course of the year has to be placed on learning and teaching (Boscardian, 2011).

The induction strategy’s development must incorporate input from freshly recruited educators facing the frustrations and joys of the initial years of instructing students. Furthermore, secondary school superintendents should be able to rely on higher education institutions for providing freshly trained regular and special education instructors with pedagogical abilities and knowledge of academic content to school districts for ensuring that each student can be educated to his/her maximum potential. Unfortunately, this doesn’t invariably happen at the level of high school. Numerous principals of secondary schools believe that freshly recruited as well as experienced regular educators generally have fair to excellent grasp of curricular matter. Typically, however, regular educators of high-school level possess inadequate pedagogical expertise and knowledge for fulfilling students’ diverse educational requirements and styles of learning. Unfortunately, at the level of high school, special educators who teach high incidence pupils in accordance with state/district educational standards normally lack in content knowledge for effectively teaching/co-teaching an advanced high school course (particularly science and mathematics) and pedagogical abilities required for effectively teaching/co-teaching curricular topics in self-contained schoolrooms having diverse students (Boscardian, 2011).

2. Summarize the Case of “Sonya.”

A special education instructor who teaches at high-school level, Sonya Brown, confesses her confusion with regard to the decisions taken by her school district superintendent concerning the number of children in special education who are to write the state examination. The previous year, the superintendent resolved that a hundred students would be registered for the test whereas in the current year, he declared that 70 of 100 students would be made to take an alternate, portfolio state test. However, Sonya is of the view that since a minimum of 40 students from the special education group must go for the state exam so as to be considered a subgroup, there would be no special education subgroup for their school. Hence, their students’ scores would also not be considered a subgroup, thereby not being summarized. The above technique will help match up to the AYP or Adequate Yearly Progress, since the whole school gets sanctioned even if only one subgroup fails to measure up to AYP. The school’s teachers believe they will be able to raise test scores; for this purpose, they would need to effect necessary changes for students’ ease of understanding. Sonya claims that she finds nothing wrong in altering the school curriculum and forgoing the use of general course books, as special education children have a slower work pace than normal kids. For no less than 15 years of her career in the educational field, Sandy has been working with special children, and is well-versed with how to aid them in grasping diverse concepts. She cites the example of one educator who develops a curriculum of his own based on children’s speed. He assigns them different level worksheets a day, and tells them how many to complete and hand in before the end of the day. Children then start working at their own unique pace, posing queries when they are unable to comprehend anything. Sonya further states that special students fail to measure up to state standards, as their work is performed at their own slow pace, and schools must be individualized instead of general; however, the superintendent wishes to comply with AYP rather than following the Individualized Education Programs (IEPs).

3. Discuss the Possible Consequences of the Administrator’s Decision in the Case Study

Special and general instructors have a crucial role to play in IEP implementation. IEP is labeled as the core of offering a free, proper public education. Being the keystone of the 2004 Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA), there is no other document that is more important for ensuring compliant and successful program planning, execution, supervision, and law enforcement. IEP functions as a strategy for services in special education (Diliberto & Brewer, 2012). Grades at school aren’t usually a suitable standard for determining goal attainment. One study revealed that grading policies of teachers have no basis in common sense or research findings. Further, grading practices are found to differ vastly among educators, even within a single school. Such ineffective and skewed measures fail to provide suitable progress documentation, of and in themselves. The above issue is very important, as recording of IEP objective and goal attainment enables schools to prove they are delivering free, apt public education. Educators must acquire training in alternative progress measures like curriculum-based measures, authentic measures, rubric-based measures, goal achievement scaling, or portfolios, as substitutes to grades in order to determine progress of students (Rotter, 2014). The superintendent could be faced with sanctions for failing to employ IEPs, since special needs children cannot match up to general curriculum grades.

4. What could the School Do to Help the Special Education Students Meet State Standards?

Prior to NCLB’s (No Child Left Behind) and IDEIA’s enactment, learning disabled pupils were regularly placed in schoolrooms for special education, for almost the entire school day. A few students learning the mainstream curriculum were customarily plucked out of their general education class, and sent to receive a major portion of instruction in one designed for special education children. In both these placements, students used an alternative curriculum or alternative grade-level program matching a diagnosis level of achievement, and not essentially an age-suited level. Success of general education students who passed the mandatory grade-level state assessments, as outlined in the study’s findings, may make one doubt the suitability of some prior placements among them (Roden, Borgemenke, & Holt, 2013).

The inclusion technique represents a rudimentary model by which non-learning-disabled as well as learning disabled children are taught in the same class. Therefore, educational inclusion provides education designed to include every single child, including learning disabled kids, within a single classroom environment. This includes kids with special needs, suffering from behavioral and emotional issues. Teachers may have to deal with various kinds of students, including learning disabled children, mentally retarded children, and emotionally disabled children. Special needs children’s placement is done in regular education classes, and they are engaged in educational environments, which may have a general education instructor, a teacher assistant, a special educator, and, possibly, community or parental volunteers (Lamport, 2012).

Modern technology enables special needs learners to acquire specialized instruction while maintaining important peer interaction. Special needs or advanced learners can make the most of interactive opportunities for distance learning, not provided by schools on account of lack of sufficient staff, expertise, or finances. In specific, video conferencing and web conferencing help bridge those chasms (Harrison, 2010).

5. Analyze the Impact of Case Study Research on the Facets of Special Education that can Impact Your Professional Interests

The educational field has an extensive history of employing case studies (dating back to the 1920’s), possibly, with increased prevalence of the idea of practical content application of John Dewey. However, increasing interest has been taken in employing case studies in several academic areas and in educational research, beginning from the eighties. One likely reason for prominence of case studies as a tool in instruction of late, is that case study adoption is consistent with constructivism- the most recent learning philosophy in the field of education. Several instructors understand that student-focused cases provide a highly constructivist mode of teaching, wherein teachers don’t merely transfer their knowledge to the students’ brain, but assist them in constructing knowledge on their own in an interactive, contextual, and social setting. The use of cases can also help develop student abilities in generating various pathways for particular circumstances by understanding that one situation may have several acceptable decisions. Hence, participation in cases can help create more reflective and questioning educators. One may readily contend that employing case studies as a tool in the classroom can be regarded as a teaching model (a learning framework wherein a majority of content area may be inserted; e.g., cooperative grouping, role play, or concept attainment). Strategies and models form part of a majority of teacher training programs or applied professional development by educators, however, it is hard to find texts, which deal with teaching techniques, in teacher training (or deal solely with teaching models), that show any reference to case method (Nath, 2005).

6. Define and Critique Method (S) You Might Use When Utilizing Case Studies

Case studies are a very valuable research method, enabling expansion and generalization of theories by merging already available theoretical knowledge and fresh empirical findings. This is of particular importance in investigating issues that have previously not garnered sufficient attention of researchers. Applying this technique can be beneficial for going beyond local limits of investigated cases, grasping novel levels of reality, and creating novel, empirically valid, and testable practical and theoretical insights. Another means to increase a case study’s validity is by having a greater number of respondents/informants from different organizations, suited to the “context” of study — for instance, consultants, industry association personnel, and government advisers– or people from the same organization. This proves highly useful when researchers have such questions for which there is no one individual with all requisite information, or if events under study have different perspectives or interpretations (Vissak, 2010).

7. Conclusion

Cultivating a positive atmosphere at school, actively promoting mentoring and induction programs, and guiding the school through instructional leadership are 3 elements of the role of principals in supporting every new teacher. Building-level superintendents are mainly responsible for developing school climate, fostering collaboration among leaders, educators, students, and parents, including settings concerning learning disabled students. Principals are described as the creators of culture and climate within the school, encouraging and supporting collegial relationships between new and experienced instructors to develop an environment in which shared responsibility exists to make Special Education Teacher Support Services (SETTS) a central component of the learning community of the school. In the last many years, a shift has been observed in the role of principal from “manager” to an instructional guide, for improving teacher efficiency and overall achievement of students (Boscardian, 2011). It is crucial that teachers be qualified to train future leaders. Research continues supporting the application of techniques in self-management for increasing academic performance and lowering negative behaviors, which can be adopted by both teachers and students. Teachers should effectively manage classrooms for every student to enjoy a positive instructional setting (Lamport, 2012). Sonya’s case study explicitly reveals how superintendents merely attempt to meet school requirements rather than concentrating on students’ needs; this issue can be resolved by a focus on children’s needs and application of different techniques.


Boscardian, M. L. (2011). Exploring the Relationship Between Special Education Teachers and Professional Learning Communities. Journal of Special Education Leadership, 62.

Case Studies in Special Education Law: No Child Left Behind Act and Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (Case 2.2 “Sonya” pages 30-32 only) (1st Edition)

Diliberto J. A., Brewer D. (2012). Six tips for successful IEP Meetings. Teaching Exceptional Children, 44,30-37

Harrison, D. (2010). Meeting the Needs of Special Needs Students Virtually. The Journal.

Lamport, M. A. (2012). Special Needs Students in Inclusive Classrooms. European Journal of Business and Social Sciences, 54-69.

Nath, J. L. (2005). THE ROLES OF CASE STUDIES IN THE EDUCATIONAL FIELD. International Journal of Case Method Research & Application, 1554-7752.

Roden, L. S., Borgemenke, A., & Holt, W. (2013). Improving the Academic Achievement of Students with Disabilities. NATIONAL FORUM OF SPECIAL EDUCATION JOURNAL, 3.

Rotter, K. (2014). IEP Use by General and Special Education Teachers. SAGE Journals.

Schulze, R. (2014). School Principal Leadership and Special Education Knowledge. Doctoral Dissertations 2014-current, 1.

Vissak, T. V. (2010). Recommendations for Using the Case Study Method in International Business Research. The Qualitative Report, 370-388

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper