Handbook of Positive Psychology. and discussion

Positive Psychology


Positive Psychology is described as being a new psychology branch that was introduced in the year 1998. The founders of this branch of psychology are Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi and Martin Seligman. According to them, it is possible for communities, families and individuals to thrive as a result of positive psychology. Those who practice positive psychology do so in an attempt to make people’s lives fulfilling and normal (Synder & Lopez, 2001). Furthermore, they seek to ensure that talent and ingenuity among people is nurtured and found. This type of psychology lays emphasize on ensuring that things are done right, through the use of the scientific method. It is claimed that, during the 20th century, humanistic psychology gave rise to positive psychology.

People have come up and criticized positive psychology as they believe that it does not work fully. There are many factors that relate to happiness and they include; Intelligence, education, age, religion and weather, among others. In some cases, it is not easy to make people happy, as their genetics cannot allow them. Fortunately, such people can be encouraged to engage in activities that increases their happiness, such as appreciation and gratitude. A clinical psychiatrist known as Steve Wolin has criticized positive psychology as he refers to it as reiteration. Also, the press has been known to claim that positive psychology has many health benefits (Lyon, 2009). There is research to suggest that positive psychology is of extreme value to human beings. Positive psychology is being researched upon in Canada, to find out if it is possible to be used in martial arts to promote personal growth. Moreover, other researchers want to find out how positive psychology can bring about behavioral and cognitive change. I would make use of positive psychology to ensure that I achieve my goals in life, as well as to become satisfied with my life. This will be possible through always having positive emotions that in turn foster happiness (Argyle, 2001).

Emotional Intelligence


This paper seeks to give a critical analysis regarding Emotional Intelligence. It seeks to find out why human resource personnel hire candidates based on their Emotional Intelligence. Furthermore, it gives a description on what Emotional Intelligence is, and the theories that exist concerning it. It should be known that Emotional intelligence is extremely vital in various ways. Lastly, the paper will address ways in, which emotional intelligence can be enhanced among individuals.

Critical analysis of emotional intelligence

At the work place, it is vital that, during the process of hiring, competent people are recruited. Also, it is essential that the recruits have Emotional Intelligence as well as be intelligent. After taking a test on Emotional Intelligence, the results were quite surprising. I found out that I have high levels of achievement orientation, team work and self control. Also, I had a high frequency, in terms of analytical thinking. Furthermore, according to the test results, I seem to have high positive emotional levels. This means that I cannot become angry easily as I tend to be free of any stress. It seems that I have the potential of being a leading Chief Executive Officer in the future.

Emotional intelligence refers to the capacity or ability to manage, assess and perceive the emotions of others and one self. Also, it should be known that there is an Emotional Quotient that is used when Emotional Intelligence is being measured. In most personal relationships, as well as in business, emotions play a crucial role. There are various reasons why personnel in the human resources often opt to recruit those with suitable Emotional Intelligence. According to research, it has been found out that, rather than expertise and intellect, emotional intelligence is much more significant (Cote & Miners, 2006).

There are various model of Emotional Intelligence, which exist, and are based upon trait, ability and mixed models. The ability model is known to be a new form of intelligence, and it has a criterion that is standard. It was introduced by Mayer and Salovey with the purpose of describing Emotional Intelligence. The model on ability dictates that in order to function well in a social environment, information has to be produced from emotions. Also, cognition plays a vital role in making sure that individuals relate well with other people. For example, through managing emotions, the person being hired should achieve the goals have been established (Martin &Ramalho & Morin, 2010). If one is emotionally intelligent, they can manage their emotions by blocking away the negative ones. This is beneficial in any organization as it means that the goals, which have been set by management, will be achieved.

On the other hand, Daniel Goleman introduced the Mixed Model of Emotional Intelligence. It seeks to find out if people can achieve leadership performance through the skills and competencies that they have. An example of a mixed model by Goleman is on relationship management. This ensures that individuals are able to manage conflict through developing, influencing and inspiring others. Those who posses such Emotional Intelligence are vital in an organization, as they can be effective leaders. Lastly, there is the Trait Model of Emotional Intelligence introduced by Konstain Petrides, a known psychologist (Martin &Ramalho & Morin, 2010). According to Petrides, there is a difference between his model and the one based on ability. The trait model focuses upon a person’s personality that is low leveled and is self-perception. This means that the trait model focuses on the personality of an individual.

Emotional Intelligence is extremely vital in various life settings, such as business and personal relationships. In this case, at the work place, job performance can be enhanced by a person’s Emotional Intelligence. Research has proven that when there is a decrease in cognitive intelligence, a person increases their job performance. Furthermore, there is evidence to show that organizational citizenship behavior and task performance is high in low IQ employees. It is possible to make sure that first line supervisors and managers become effective when their Emotional Intelligence is developed. In turn, the employees learn how to inspire others, solve problems and to become better listeners. Moreover, they are on their way towards becoming personal leaders who are effective. Emotional Intelligence can be used effectively to develop leadership, which is of extreme importance in the modern world. Moreover, it can bring about success at the work place. Some of the competencies, which it enforces, include; personality traits, cognitive ability and technical skills. The latter have the potential of improving the bottom line of any company. It has been found out that an organization’s profitability is increased as a result of Emotional Intelligence (Martin &Ramalho & Morin, 2010).

In conclusion, Emotional Intelligence can be enhanced in various ways, which have been proven to be successful. First, people can be trained in order to increase their emotional intelligence. They can be provided with skills in certain areas and in turn, acquire competencies in emotional intelligence (Harackiewicz et al, 2002). Also, they can be subjected to environments that are conducive for emotional intelligence development. The latter ensures that people at the work place become productive, and in turn they also benefit.





Lyon, Lindsay. (2009). How positive psychology can increase your happiness. U.S. News HEALTH.  Retrieved from http://health.usnews.com/health-news/family-health/brain-and-behavior/articles/2009/06/24/how-positive-psychology-can-increase-your-happiness

Argyle, Michael. (2001). The Psychology of Happiness. New York: Routledge.

Synder, C. & Lopez, J. (2001). Handbook of Positive Psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Martins, A. &Ramalho, N. & Morin, E. (2010). “A comprehensive meta-analysis of the relationship between emotional intelligence and health”. Journal of Personality and Individual Differences 49 ,6, 554–564.

Cote, S. & Miners, C. (2006). “Emotional intelligence, cognitive intelligence and job performance”, Administrative Science Quarterly, 51, 1, 1-28

Harackiewicz, J. et al. (2002). Revision of achievement goal theory: Necessary and Illuminating. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 3, 638-645.



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