Holfstede’s Cultural Dimensions Essay Paper

Inter-Culture Communication

Holfstede’s Cultural Dimensions

Geert Holfstede is a prominent Dutch cultural anthropologist who argues against the existence of a universal management method or management (Changing Minds 2011). Management is not separable from processes already interacting within a society. It assimilates with developments and occurrences in the family, school, politics and government. It necessarily interacts also with religion and science. Hofstede formulated five dimensions of differences or value perspectives between national cultures. These dimensions are power distance, individualism vs. collectivism, masculinity vs. femininity, long-term vs. short-term orientation, and uncertainty avoidance. He uses and commends these dimensions to managers in order to know, understand and empathize with people of other countries. These help the manager become aware of how people of other cultures think, feel and act differently from him. This application is especially helpful to those who work internationally (Changing Minds).

Power distance refers to the degree of inequality, which people of a given country consider normal (Changing Minds 2011). Individualism vs. collectivism is the extent to which people are supposed to take care of themselves or by others, their families or groups to which they belong. Masculinity vs. femininity refers to dominance, aggressiveness and acquisition of things as against one, which relates more with people, feelings and the quality of life. Uncertainty avoidance is the degree in which people in a particular society prefer structured to un-structured situations. And long-term vs. short-term orientation presents a contrast between future-oriented values and current or past-oriented values. Holfstede studied 58 countries, using these dimensions and rated them from 1 to100. Top-scoring countries in the power distance category are Malaysia, Panama and Guatemala. The U.S.A. ranked only 38th but topped the individualism vs. collectivism category. Australia and Great Britain ranked next. Japan, Austria and Venezuela topped the gender category. Greece topped the predictability/uncertainty category. China ranked highest in the long vs. short-term orientation, followed by Hong Kong and Taiwan (Changing Minds).

Turkey and Istanbul

Turkey is located in Asia Minor and a small part of Europe (Agnarella 2011). It was founded in 1923 from the race that evolved from multi-ethnic and multi-lingual Ottoman Empire tribes of the 14th-20th centuries. The Turk annual population increase went down to 1.6% in 1998 after rising to more than 2.5%. About 65% of its total population lives in 35,000 urban villages. Their language is Altaic although other languages are spoken by at least 35 non-Turkish ethnic groups. Its government established and supports historical and linguistic societies, which research on and record its glorious past. Its central government is located in Istanbul, the capital (Agnarella).

Istanbul is the largest city in Turkey with 10 million people, as of 2004 estimates

(Kjeilen 2011). Its old name was Constantinople. It is the chief seaport and commercial and financial center at the same time. About 35% of its manufacturing plants are strewn around the city. Its economy is backed by large-scale industries, prominently automobile and truck assembly, shipbuilding and repairing, cement production, cigarette, food products, fruits, olive oil, silk and many others. It also has a flourishing center for banking and insurance and tourism. In earlier centuries, Constantinople was among the most important cities in the world. As the leading city after the fall of Rome, it was the center for the fusion of cultures, customs, arts and literature (Kjeilen).

Reduced Gender Inequality

Turkish law recognizes and guarantees equal pay for equal work between men and women (Agnarella 2011). It allows women access to practically all educational programs and occupations. In general, though, men dominate high business ranks, the military, government, the professions and educational institutions. Traditionally, women were confined to domestic responsibilities and away from public work and unrelated men. But women have since begun to work in public. Women in the lower social classes worked as maid, house cleaners, dressmakers, seamstresses, child care givers, agricultural laborers and nurses. But since the early 90s, women comprised about 20% of factory and store positions. Gradually, middle-class women became employed as teachers and bank tellers. Upper-class women became doctors, lawyers, engineers and university instructors. Only a few women became politicians. Stereotypes can still be seen with men avoiding traditional non-agricultural occupations assigned to lower-class women. In urban areas, lower-class men work in crafts, manufacturing and low-paid service. Middle-class men work as teachers, accountants, businessmen, and middle managers (Agnarella).

Marriage Practices

Most adult Turks marry and have children, as society expects them (Agnarella 2011). They usually marry within their own ethnic group and religious sect. Kin groups handle the selection of spouses and the marriage ceremony. The future man and wife played minor roles during the premarital process. The Turks believe that pertinent rituals, especially the imam marriage ceremony, are important in molding a morally and socially acceptable marriage. In 1936, the Turkish government abolished the traditional Islamic family law and replaced it with a modified family law according the Swiss civil code. It recognizes civil marriage and the consent of the parties, although families still play a role in the selection. There have been infrequent divorces. The new code forbids and has eliminated the husband’s privilege to divorcing his wife. The law now recognizes only 6 grounds for divorce. These are adultery, plot against one’s life, grave assaults, insults, crime or a dishonorable life, desertion, mental weakness and incompatibility. The requirements are, however, difficult to comply with. A couple cannot agree to divorce (Agnarella).

Strict and formal etiquette characterizes Turkish culture (Agnarella 2011). They govern intergenerational and heterosexual interactions. They address non-relatives formally. They do not show affection in public. Men do not shake women’s hands.

But unlike in Western countries, Turkish teenagers are not allowed to hop from partner to search for their future mates (eHow 2011). Turks hold on to their Islamic tradition of prohibiting premarital dating. They look for their children’s spouses from among their families and friends. Men are usually expected to marry after they serve in the military and usually at age 22. Women usually marry at 20. Go-betweens assist in looking for a bride for a son, especially in the rural areas. Women go to the prospective girl’s house and examine her. When the prospective groom’s family approves the girl, the would-be bride’s family is informed about the groom before agreeing to give her in marriage. When there is approval between the families, the man and the woman express their choice independently. The engagement is established when the bride’s family returns an embroidered kerchief with a ring attached to it to the groom’s family. It is an occasion for rejoicing when a woman gives birth to a son and her status increases before her husband, in-laws and the community. A mother spoils a son, who remains with her up to age 10 or 11. After this age, the son is turned over to other male members or figures. Daughters remain close to their mothers (Agranella).

Business Etiquette

This is a difficult combination and understanding of the local language, culture, religion and traditions (Agnarella 2011, eHow 2011). Tardiness is criticized as consideration for others in the meeting is considered important. Those in the meeting are not expected to drink, smoke or eat anything without first making an offer to those around. Human relations in Istanbul are very important where family times and personal relationships play an important role. (Dincmen 2000). It is, hence, difficult to keep secrets in business. Deals are more commonly verbal. It is hard to obtain or make written commitments. Even with a combination of both, the verbal part still dominates the written part. Handshakes are also a very important part of business. The Turks are smart, intelligent, diligent and reliable. They also observe high morality and enthusiasm and keep their word. Doing business with multinational partners infuses value on procedures and systems. But Turks are quite flexile and can adapt. They look for other ways of conducting work. This is why they can decide fast and start business quite aggressively. Those who intend to do business in Istanbul should create a friendly and business atmosphere. They can do this by giving more time to the human side of business or transaction. They should be ready for lots of compromises and agreements that will accrue to mutual profitability (Dincmen, Agnarella, eHow).


An analysis and evaluation of Istanbul as the European Capital of Culture 2010 revealed certain issues (Isayev 2011, Beyazit et al. 2011). For its reception of dynamic global culture, Istanbul becomes an accumulator rather than the developer. As such, it does not necessarily become efficient. Istanbul only retains from what the West infuses. It only attaches and develops projects and programs. Istanbul does not produce what it introduces to the world. Its cultural goods and services are not necessarily distributed worldwide. It is not certain if these have or can be determinants of global culture (Isayev, Beyazit et al.).

Do deep differences really exist between Eastern and Western thinking (McPherson 2007)? How much does a culture change by internal or external influences and over time? Holfstede rated Turkey 66 in power distance while the U.S. scored 40. The Turks still distrust although they know well how to hide it. Turkey scored 45 in femininity vs. masculinity. Holfstede used feminine values of modesty and caring and masculine values of assertiveness and competitiveness to arrive at this score. Masculinity differs from the macho image. When the difference is not recognized, Turkey rated lower than if it was recognized. Compare with Japan, which got the highest score at 98% and Sweden at only 5% (McPherson).

In conducting research on national cultures, one must keep in mind that averages do not relate to individuals in a country or destination under study. Even if Holfstede’s model has proved accurate quite often in general population studies, a researcher must be careful not to assume that all the individuals or even regions with subcultures, necessarily fit. Research can only serve as guide to understanding differences between countries. It does not set a solid law. There will always be exceptions to the rule and the findings of research (McPherson). #


Agnarella, Paul J.M. Turkey. Countries and Their Cultures: Advameg, Inc., 2011.

Retrieved on December 14, 2011 from http://www.everyculture.com/To-Z/Turkey.html

Beyazit, Eda et al. Evaluating Istanbul in the Process of European Capital of Culture

2010. 42nd ISoCaRP Congress. International Society of City and Regional Planning,

2011. Retrieved on December 14, 2011 from http://www.isocarp.net/Data/case_studies/762.pdf

Changing Minds. Hofstede’s Cultural Factors. Changing Minds, 2011. Retrieved on December 14, 2011 from http://www.changingminds.org/explanations/culture/hofstede_culture.htm

Dincmen, Nihat. Istanbul Business Culture and Business Environment Istanbul Life:

Istanbul Life.org, 2000. Retrieved on December 14, 2011 from http://www.istanbullife.org/istanbul_business_culture.htm

Ehow. Turkish Dating Culture. eHow.com: Demand Media, Inc. Retrieved on http://www.ehow.com/about_6514050_turkish-dating-culture.html

Isayev, Ismayil. Istanbul: a City of Global Cultural Importance? Washington Review:

Review of Turkish and Eurasian Affairs, 2011. Retrieved on December 11, 2011

from http://www.washingtonreview.org/articles/is-istanbul-a-city-if-global-culture-importance.html

Kjeilen, Tore. Istanbul. Look Lex Encyclopedia: LexicOrient, 2011. Retrieved on December 14, 2011 from http://www.i-cias.com/e-o/istanbul.htm

McPherson, Charlotte. Difference between Eastern and Western Thinking. Today’s

Zaman: Feza Gazetecilik A-S, 2007. Retrieved on December 14, 2011 from http://www.odayszaman.com/columnist-22324-differences-between-eastern-and-western-thinking.html

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper