How unplanned pregnancies and smoking are linked

Literature Review

According to Finer & Zolna (2016), In U.S annually, 45 percent of pregnancies are approximated to be unintended. Pregnancies are grouped into ‘unplanned and planned. The unintended pregnancies are further sub-grouped into unwanted pregnancies that occur when a woman doesn’t want a child at all or did not want any more children. The other is the mistimed pregnancies that happen earlier than the desired time (Place et al,2017). Therefore, intended pregnancies can be defined as pregnancies that transpire at an appropriate time or longer than the expected time. The latter can reflect conception difficulties or infertility (Everett, McCabe, & Hughes, 2016, 2017). Adolescent girls, minority females, and poverty-stricken women as well as cohabiting women are the most vulnerable and likely to experience unplanned pregnancies(Finer & Zolna, 2011Finer & Zolna, 20142016).

Issues such as Depression, government assistance, exposure to violence, for instance, violence amidst intimate couples, adults, and adolescents’ histories of forced first intercourse or sexual assaults as well as antagonistic events in juvenile, have been stated to increase risks of unplanned pregnancies (Finer & Desai, 2018). Unplanned pregnancies are linked with an increased probability that women will smoke in pregnancy, begin prenatal care very late and even have very few visits. They will also not initiate nor continue breast-feeding their babies (Klein, & Ray, 2017); as a result, they show higher risks of maternal anxiety and Depression (Place et al,2017). Even though an association occur between poor child health results, for instance, delivering low birth weight or preterm babies(Kost & Lindberg, 2015) are not supported, a few studies have demonstrated it. The unplanned pregnancies grouped as unwanted vs. mistimed are the ones mainly linked to child results and poor maternal care (Fox, & Barfield, 2016). Depression or anxiety has been stated as the result of unintended pregnancies because women are the most vulnerable.  Depression results in unplanned pregnancy due to poverty, sexual assault, harsh backgrounds, and lack of money. These aspects force women to lead reckless lives that may lead to unplanned pregnancies.

As a result, unplanned pregnancy is pegged to Depression because of the life adversaries that make women lead the kind of life that makes them vulnerable to unwanted pregnancies. In adolescent’s Depression is a significant factor; this is because the current technologically advancement in the world has caused parents to pull down their roles and turned to avoid their tasks of guiding children (Thongnopakun, & Somrongthong, 2018).  Therefore, children end up engaging in criminal activities, drug consumption to reduce Depression because parents are no longer available to listen to them and advise themappropriately. Whatever follows is the youthful ladies are then misled by other peers that through engaging in sexual intimacy depression can end as it results to happiness (Radcliff, & Cartledge,2018). By the time they realize, the advice was wrong, they already involved in sex, and an unwanted pregnancy has occurred. Such reasons confirm that, indeed, Depression amongst adolescents results in an unwanted pregnancy.

Higher-order, denoting that greater or second, unplanned births will probably be considered as unexpected at birth than the first unwanted birth (Phillips,2018). Women and Adolescents in the United States are not likely to abort unwanted pregnancies as compared to women or youths in other industrialized countries (Gomez, 2018). Hence their pregnancies will most likely lead to, the prevention of several unplanned pregnancies is a way of preventing the deliveries, which are strongly linked to poor results.

In South Carolina, to be precise, in 2010, fifty percent of all the pregnancies were 42000 and were unplanned(Kost, & Arpaia, 2017). The unintended rate in South Carolina by 2010 was forty-six per thousandfemales between ages 15-44.  The national statistics rates amidst states varied from lower than thirty -two per thousand in New Hampshire and more than sixty-two per a thousand within Delaware (Thompson & Vyas, 2019). The rate of teenage pregnancies within South Carolina is at fifty-nine per a thousand tenagers of ages 15-19 by 2017(WHO,2017).

Generally, fifty -one percent of all births in the U.S in 2010 were funded by public insurance through the Indian Health Care, Children Health Insurance Program, and Medicaid (Thongnopakun, & Somrongthong, 2018). By then, 2M births were funded by the government, and all the cases half of them that’s one million were unwanted (Reese& Halpern, 2017). The public fund birth in 2010 costed an average of 12,770 dollars for prenatal care, delivery and labor, postnatal care and one year of child care, as well as inclusion of sixty month increases the cost per birth to rise to 20,716 dollars (Hynes et ai.,2018).

The government expense on adolescents’births, miscarriages, and abortions that resulted from unwanted pregnancies in the U.S amounted to $ 22 billion by 2015, which amounted to fifty-one percent of the 40.8 billion paid for all the government-funded pregnancies within that year (Nelson & Kakaiya, 2016).  The total gross savings from preventing all unplanned pregnancies in 2015 would be fifteen billion dollars (Boulet et al.,2016).  The amount is less as compared to the entire public expense of all unplannedpregnancies. The reason is that even if all females managed to time pregnancies’ as they wished, the public would fund some of the births that occurred still (Horwitz, Ross-Degnan, & Pace, 2019).

The state designed a three-state economic model to approximate the virtual expenses of no method, four short-acting adjustable methods plus three methods of LARC (Norton & Lane, 2017).  Although the LARC approaches aren’t utilized for a full period of efficiency, the LARC method is much more cost-efficient as compared to the short-acting contraceptives methods that are used for three years (Hendrick, Cone, Cirullo, & Maslowsky,2019).  The government considered expenses linked with administration, failure, and acquisition that is defined as unplanned pregnancy(Hendrick,Cone, Cirullo, & Maslowsky, 2019). The assistance that the government offers and unplanned pregnancies result in an adolescent’s Depression. Even if the government provides support for the pregnancies that aren’t planned for by adolescents, they still cause adolescents a lot of anxiety (Pazol et al,2016,2017). For instance, also, if all the prenatal care charges are catered for, and the youth doesn’t accept the motherly roles positively, they will still be depressed (Parks &Peiperl, 2016).  The depression aspect comes in because there is little the government is doing apart from catering for unwanted pregnancies (Hartnett, Lindley, & Walsemann,2017). The youths should be counseled and advised accordingly on means of protecting themselves from unplanned pregnancy and accepting their current situation and being positive about their babies even if they were unintended.

The trauma of carrying a baby who was unplanned for nine months and maybe there are no finances for sustain the child’s growth will torment the most adolescents thus, the reasoning that unintendedpregnanciesa result of adolescent Depression(Bledsoe et al,2018). The mistimed pregnancies lead to Depression because these adolescences are always neglected and isolated by families and friends (Hall et al.,2019). Also, one might have been sexually assaulted such matter combined with the fact that the pregnancyin place is unplanned will most likely increase the levels of anxiety amongst the youths who aren’t ready or well-prepared for parentage roles(Hall et al., 2017). However, the unexpected has occurred, and they have to face reality for carrying unplanned pregnancy will even increase the anxiety more.


Bledsoe, S. E., Wike, T., Killian-Farrell, C., Lombardi, B., Rizo, C., Bellows, A. M. O., … & Sheely, A. L. (2018). Feasibility of treating depression in pregnant adolescents using brief interpersonal psychotherapy. Social work in mental health16(3), 252-265.

Boulet, S. L., D’Angelo, D. V., Morrow, B., Zapata, L., Berry-Bibee, E., Rivera, M., … & Williams, T. (2016). Contraceptive use among nonpregnant and postpartum women at risk for unintended pregnancy, and female high school students, in the context of Zika preparedness—United States, 2011–2013 and 2015. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report65(30), 780-787.

Everett, B. G., McCabe, K. F., & Hughes, T. L. (2016). Unintended pregnancy, depression, and hazardous drinking in a community-based sample of sexual minority women. Journal of Women’s Health25(9), 904-911.

Everett, B. G., McCabe, K. F., & Hughes, T. L. (2017). Sexual orientation disparities in mistimed and unwanted pregnancy among adult women. Perspectives on sexual and reproductive health49(3), 157-165.

Finer LB and Zolna MR,(2016). Declines in unintended pregnancy in the United States, 2008-2011.

Finer, L. B., Lindberg, L. D., & Desai, S. (2018). A prospective measure of unintended pregnancy in the United States. Contraception98(6), 522-527.

Fox, J., & Barfield, W. (2016). Decreasing unintended pregnancy: opportunities created by the Affordable Care Act. Jama316(8), 815-816.

Frost JJ, Sonfield A, Zolna MR and Finer LB, 2014: Return on investment: a fuller assessment of the benefits and cost savings of the US publicly funded family planning program.

Gomez, A. M. (2018). Abortion and subsequent depressive symptoms: an analysis of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Psychological medicine48(2), 294-304.

Hall, K. S., Beauregard, J. L., Livingston, M. D., & Harris, K. M. (2019). 5. Stressful Life Events andthe Risk of Unintended Pregnancy: Implications for Toxic Stress and Reproductive Health Disparities During Adolescence and Young Adulthood. Journal of Adolescent Health64(2), S3.

Hall, K. S., Beauregard, J. L., Rentmeester, S. T., Livingston, M., & Harris, K. M. (2019). Adverse life experiences and risk of unintended pregnancy in adolescence and early adulthood: Implications for toxic stress and reproductive health. SSM-population health7, 100344.

Hall, K. S., Richards, J. L., & Harris, K. M. (2017). Social disparities in the relationship between depression and unintended pregnancy during adolescence and young adulthood. Journal of Adolescent Health60(6), 688-697.

Hartnett, C. S., Lindley, L. L., & Walsemann, K. M. (2017). Congruence across sexual orientation dimensions and risk for unintended pregnancy among adult US women. Women’s Health Issues27(2), 145-151.

Hendrick, C. E., Cone, J. N., Cirullo, J., & Maslowsky, J. (2019). Determinants of Long-Acting Reversible Contraception (LARC) Initial and Continued Use Among Adolescents in the United States. Adolescent Research Review, 1-37.

Horwitz, M. E. M., Ross-Degnan, D., & Pace, L. E. (2019). Contraceptive initiation among women in the United States: Timing, methods used, and pregnancy outcomes. Pediatrics143(2), e20182463.

Hynes, J. S., Sales, J. M., Sheth, A. N., Lathrop, E., & Haddad, L. B. (2018). Interest in multipurpose prevention technologies to prevent HIV/STIs and unintended pregnancy among young women in the United States. Contraception97(3), 277-284.

Klein, D. A., & Ray, M. E. (2017). Preventing Unintended Adolescent Pregnancy. American family physician95(7), 422-423.

Kost, K., Maddow-Zimet, I., & Arpaia, A. (2017). Pregnancies, births and abortions among adolescents and young women in the United States, 2013: National and state trends by age, race and ethnicity.

Nelson, A. L., & Kakaiya, R. (2016). Prevention of unintended pregnancy among sexually active adolescents in the United States. Primary Prevention Insights6, 1.

Norton, M., Chandra-Mouli, V., & Lane, C. (2017). Interventions for preventing unintended, rapid repeat pregnancy among adolescents: a review of the evidence and lessons from high-quality evaluations. Global Health: Science and Practice5(4), 547-570.

Parks, C., & Peipert, J. F. (2016). Eliminating health disparities in unintended pregnancy with long-acting reversible contraception (LARC). American journal of obstetrics and gynecology214(6), 681-688.

Pazol, K., Daniels, K., Romero, L., Warner, L., & Barfield, W. (2016). Trends in long-acting reversible contraception use in adolescents and young adults: new estimates accounting for sexual experience. Journal of Adolescent Health59(4), 438-442.

Pazol, K., Ellington, S. R., Fulton, A. C., Zapata, L. B., Boulet, S. L., Rice, M. E., … & Kroelinger, C. D. (2018). Contraceptive use among women at risk for unintended pregnancy in the context of public health emergencies—United States, 2016. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report67(32), 898.

Phillips, M. B. (2018). The False Freedom of Promiscuity: Consequences of Teenage Sexual Activity. The National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly18(3), 451-463.

Place, J. M. S., Allen‐Leigh, B., Billings, D. L., Dues, K. M., & de Castro, F. (2017). Detection and care practices for postpartum depressive symptoms in public‐sector obstetric units in Mexico: Qualitative results from a resource‐constrained setting. Birth44(4), 390-396.

Radcliff, E., Hale, N., Browder, J., & Cartledge, C. (2018). Building Community Partnerships: Using Social Network Analysis to Strengthen Service Networks Supporting a South Carolina Program for Pregnant and Parenting Teens. Journal of community health43(2), 273-279.

Reese, B. M., & Halpern, C. T. (2017). Attachment to conventional institutions and adolescent rapid repeat pregnancy: A longitudinal national study among adolescents in the United States. Maternal and child health journal21(1), 58-67.

Thompson, K., & Vyas, A. (2019). Preventing Unintended Pregnancies in Washington DC: What Factors are Related to Effective Contraceptive Use.

Thongnopakun, S., Pumpaibool, T., & Somrongthong, R. (2018). The association of sociodemographic characteristics and sexual risk behaviors with health literacy toward behaviors for preventing unintended pregnancy among university students. Journal of multidisciplinary healthcare11, 149.

World Health Organization. (2017). Family planning evidence brief: reducing early and unintended pregnancies among adolescents (No. WHO/RHR/17.10 Rev. 1). World Health Organization.

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