Industrial Organization Analysis- Uber

Industrial Organization Analysis- Uber

Uber is a company that operates under the philosophy of being the best and above the rest. Uber specializes in the taxi industry and offers fast, easy, and deluxe transportation services. Uber is known for the introduction of the ride-sharing app phenomenon that took over the traditional concept of people going out to fetch and hire cabs (Bardhi & Eckhardt). Individuals can get an Uber ride through their phone websites and be picked at their doorstep. The company is efficient and inspired by other ride-sharing app service providers in the industry, such as Lyft and Didi. Uber operates in more than 785 regions globally, with its headquarters seated in San Francisco, America. The company has fundamentally influenced the economy leading to the ‘Uberization’ effect. The firm continues to expand and prevail in the mainstream taxi industry, staying ahead of its rivals despite negative criticism. Although the company has diversified in other specialties such as food delivery, the objective of this paper is to conduct an industrial organization on Uber as a transport provider based on theoretical studies. The paper will delve on a literature review on Uber’s recent models and the company’s practices using macroeconomic analysis. 

OVERVIEW OF TAXI INDUSTRY

           Digital innovation has drastically changed the way businesses operate. The transport industry can attest to novel technology, a congested transportation system, and new customer expectations. Resultantly, former critical players in the taxi industry are unfortunately prisoners of the traditional method. Uber has shaken the taxi industry leading to ugly wars with its competitors. The traditionalists are no longer stable and have launched war cries and crusades to protect their interests and resist change. Human beings are resistant to change, and the once monopolistic and over-regulated system has reformed adopting new changes. Uber’s restructuring is perceived as an unlawful action executed by few individuals who are held captive by their ancient manner of thought and are engrained in the defense mechanism of an old system (Barbaro & Parker). Historically, cabs have resisted the rise of Uber and similarly minded players to bring a halt on innovation. Cab drivers operating in ancient ways have attempted to find a footing in the modern taxi spectrum by staging strikes and bringing significant towns such as Paris and London to a stop leaving clients helpless. The drivers are stuck in repudiation and lack of route accountability. Fortunately, the negativity of traditional taxi players has worked positively for Uber, propelling the firm to more success. 

The taxi industry has changed drastically universally, and as a result, Uber is committed to serving its niche of clients instead of struggling to develop the law. Other taxi drivers have deputized the role of lawmakers ignoring vital solutions that meet customers’ needs. On the down low, policymakers are supporting the resistant taxi companies rather than developing solutions to the ride-sharing crisis. For example, Thomas Thévenoud, a Socialist deputy in France, denounced Uber services as well as Germany, who banned the applications that assist clients in locating ride-sharing services in their territories (Chang). The rigid taxi companies’ ae fighting a losing battle since, after the demonstrations, research indicates that Uber registers more new users. For example, after the London strike, Uber recorded an increase of 850 new users, which demonstrates that people cannot continue to conform to the traditional manner of doing things (Bouquet & Renault). Tomorrows’ taxi success is tagged to technology innovation and political steadiness of nations across the globe.  

Uber consistently continues to revolutionize as competitors stay defensive and adapt to new changes at a snail pace. The oldies have the wrong perception of thinking that their future success depends on their historical position in the sector. If the entire taxi fraternity is to succeed, the traditional thinkers have to leave their comfort zone and focus speedily on new customer-centric strategies. For example, Uber announced that it purposed to launch trips in helicopters as a means of multi-modal transportation, the Uber Style (Bouquet & Renault). Uber continues to have a sharp wit in the industry, develops outstanding stratagems, and notices the changes around them acting at the same time to satisfy customer’s needs for the customer is king.

A SYNTHESIS OF LITERATURE REVIEW

Sharing Economy

The concept of sharing economy is as old as humanity, and the economic power of Uber continues to grow amid regulations and policy scuffles. The question of whether Uber positively impacts ridership in public transport is widely debated. Hall, among other authors, asserts that Uber is theoretically ambiguous despite the company being an alternative mode of travel (Hall et al.). Hall uses a difference –in –difference trend to exploit and estimate the critical role of Uber on public transit ridership in the US and beyond. Uber penetration has intensified, and the timing of its entry is becoming a complement for the average transit industry masking its heterogeneity. Uber has optimized the sharing economy, also known as the gig economy. The argument raises eyebrows and begs whether Uber has adopted the right policies by embracing wage-earning opportunities to populous nations or displaced the net effect of traditionally securing jobs through engaging low-paid works or employing part-time workforce. There is a persistent harsh tone as well as controversial proponents that claim that the organization is aggravating inequality, commodifying daily life, and demeaning labor.

Further, different reports such as the liberal-leaning Center for Economic and Policy Research and Alan Krueger, who is a former chairperson of Obama’s Council of Economic Advisers, cites that digital innovation in the form of Uber app has given the firm an advantage over its rival (Krueger & Kleiner). Technology avails more benefits such as decreasing prices for consumers in addition to creating job opportunities for drive partners, unlike the traditional taxi cab dispatch tactic. Uber maximizes social media platforms in addition to the use of mobile apps on the internet-enabled gadgets to promote peer-to-peer transactions which boost demand for ride services. Substantially, the earnings of the company increase as more demand for hired drivers escalate. Uber is a digital matching company that has successfully mapped out the contours of this upcoming transport sector. A literature review shows that part of the company’s success story is due to dependence on user-based rating systems for quality checks that boost trust between the entity and the customers.

Moreover, the firm provides flexibility to its workers since they can provide services on digital platforms and decide on their working schedules. Uber has benefitted both the drivers and consumers. The drivers reap the chance of harnessing economic prospects and higher earnings while clients enjoy easy availability of the taxis, seamless transactions, convenience, and affordable cost (Farber). As a result, Uber has disrupted the cab industry creating new efficiencies for consumers. Change is inevitable as Uber makes significant regulatory headway since its inception in 2009, regardless of political wars. 

The bad boy of the gig economy

Critiques argue that Uber is striving to become a monopoly and the ‘Amazon of the Taxi Industry.’ To maintain the status quo, the company:

  •  invades users’ privacy
  •  evades government regulations
  •  Exaggerates the drivers’ income
  •  Stints on security.

The above factors have resulted in dystopian fears and socially transformative practices depicting Uber as an immoral and socially destructive profit-seeking adventurer. Uber is perceived to practice the ‘share the scraps’ economy and a precariat of the same economy that pushes risks to employees. Sharing, according to Uber, does not entail monetary exchange value as it ought to be but a share washing platform that inappropriately uses positive links to disguise its self-interested activities. Several commentators argue that Uber is in the business of ill-using labor in the 19th century, which is not sharing the gig economy.

Taxes and government regulation 

Dean Baker (2014), a left-leaning economist, avows that Uber is good at facilitating colossal rip-offs of tax revenues and offering consumers substandard services in addition to unsafe products. The company has chosen to act this way without government permission and further engaged in corporate nullification. The epitaph of a sharing economy emphasizes no segregation and adds more weight to neutralism and a platform economy, namely peer-to-peer (P2P). The P2P economy is a platform exchange that utilizes crowdsourcing of information from users. Data uses the P2P analog to acquire data that enhances the inclination of persons to transact to reduce the risk of dealing with unfamiliar faces (Frechette et al.). However, Uber is not publicizing its data to independent researchers. Another limitation of this sphere of study is that there are fewer published academic studies. The P2P economy acts as an intermediary that produces and sells services through the development of software, insurance, and ratings. The P2P innovation favors the use of democratically-driven public policy and organization as a sharing platform that is mass-produced. The company uses individuals’ reputational data to create portable ratings at a relatively low cost (Skok & Baker).

Reduction of Driver’s Take-home Pay to enhance business margin

A recent study illustrates that majority of drivers, which is approximated to be 90% are immigrants from the Hispanic world of the Dominican Republic and Haiti besides Asia. During 2009, the take-home earnings for Uber drivers were an estimated $12-17 per hour, where the drivers needed to put in 60-75 hours weekly. However, the company reduced the take-home pay to $ 9-11 per hour, which is below the minimum wage levels (Polzin). Its effort to reduce driver pay is an indication of how the firm purposed to use marketplace influence as a significant source of returns despite advertising how it stands to improve life for its driver-partners. The taxi’s entrance plan led to an increase in the demand for drivers. Still, it did not work as anticipated by economic theory since the working conditions of drivers deteriorated, and their pay decreased. The firm used intense driver recruitment programs to deceive drivers intentionally and subjugated simulated marketplace supremacy to subvert healthy market dynamics. The labor force in Uber was lied to as their working conditions moved from worse to ill compared to traditional tax companies. Uber does not own any vehicle but has used technology to pool a group of car owners to render the taxi service. Resultantly, Uber has used gross misrepresentations of gross pay to paint a picture of the best taxi employer falsely.

Further, the firm aggravated the matter by pushing the total vehicle burden onto drivers leading to more artificial power. The drivers have no freedom like traditional cab drivers who can move to other jobs if unsatisfied. The drives are tied to a harder financial commitment that makes it hard for the driver to leave despite poor pay. Uber’s margin has improved in the last five years due to the dismissal of driver compensation down to minimum remuneration levels, but the company has failed to improve its efficiency. Besides, the firm jettisons most of the incentives it had used to lure the workforce. It was on the same basis that Uber increased the share of passenger fares from 20% to 30%. Comparing Uber to its competitor Lyft, both organizations have used unilateral compensation cuts that have led to direct wealth transfer from labor to capital to a tune of more than $3B. Lyft used a similar approach and realized a wealth transfer of $1 B (Polzin).

Uber’s Coherent Strategy for Earning Returns on Investment (ROI)

Uber’ subsidized growth’ was a coherent strategy that the company used to attract investors to acquire universal dominance of modernized car services. The investors were to use subsidies to achieve extremely rapid growth based on Uber’s growth and profits earned from the competitive capital markets. They were to ignore the lack of earnings in anticipation that Uber was to attain massive subsidies to plow back returns on their investment. The tactic was not grounded on finance accumulation in an edgy market through persuasive benefit; hence the organization was not built on viable economic muscle, analogous to what platform companies like Amazon have accomplished. Investors expected Uber to generate the revenues that its operating economics could never grasp in an edgy world.

Falsified use of technology and growth at any cost corporate culture

Uber has headed media headlines and received its share of backlash all for the wrong reasons. Commentators mention that the firm adopted a ruthless and monomaniacal culture of ‘growth at any cost’ corporate culture under the leadership of the former CEO, Travis Kalanick (Polzin). The culture paved the way for disobedience of legal and legal frameworks. What’s more, the philosophy intensified impediment of enforcement of the law, contending disruption, and intellectual property theft in addition to the pestering of precarious media personalities. Ubers valorized behavior financed the company’s growth from a negative cash flow such that journalist probing made no sense, and regulatory resistance was futile. In the recent past, Uber has created Personal Relation (PR) stories to confuse the public at large from its anti-competitive goals. The company falsely claimed that its growth was a result of strong network economies and a superior user interface. But, its success is credited to substantial subsidies that allowed the app to display more cab availability at lower prices than the traditional cab companies.

Uber exaggerated how its customers adored the smartphone app, which formed the basis of the core of the company, yet it was not valid. Any evidence of real network economies did not back Uber’s marketing tricks; neither could it expound on how these alleged platform-based economies could create quasi-monopoly authority in the automobile field. It hungered to dominate. What the public and interested stakeholders have never been enlightened is that Uber lacks the so-called platform-based network economies like other successful firms like Facebook to grow profitably. A company like Uber and Apple acquire market power by building a legit business base that enables them to soar above any problematic aspects. The institutions generated steady cash flow to fund predicted growth towards market dominance. Facebook introduced a novel communication tool that had a domino effect across its extensive network, while Amazon grew efficient breakthroughs in e-commerce. Uber lacks the immunity from competition and dominance vital to adventure an unexploited market on a range similar to that of Facebook and Apple. The market power of both Amazon and Facebook can be attributed to the company’s size, dominance in their respective industries, and invulnerability from new entrants in the market. Uber’s platform power allowed the firm to push workers and suppliers to the wall economically, and cities, to influence the information presented to consumers and to expand into other markets where their principal benefit is the achievement of platform ubiquity. Uber exploited artificial market power against its drivers and forced its uses to cede control of their data.

Ubers manufactured narratives and the winner-take-all story is necessary tools that the firm uses to maintaining growth expectations and expand beyond the car service business. According to the literature review, Uber relied on Silicon Valley to make assumptions that the growth rate and like equity appreciation of the firm required no examination similar to that of Amazon. Uber abandoned global expansion driven model that overwhelmed other taxi organizations for a narrative of synergies that would permit Uber drivers to exploit the firm’s platform for profitability. It has encouraged its drivers to explore lower margin businesses such as urban logistics and food delivery amid well-established rivals. This happens when the company lacks steady cash flow and growing core business profits. The lower-margin enterprises are used to indicate that Uber’s IPO prospectus and size of its operation. The margins are swiftly increasing, yet they remain unprofitable. Based on Uber’s narrative, the corporation had IPO prospectus of 26 B miles consumers who used Uber ride services in 2018 alone, yet this is less than 1% of the company’s real market potential.

The company has experienced colossal service losses, and to revert the situation, Uber announces that it will adopt a theoretical model of using autonomous cars. The adoption of automatic vehicles, according to Uber, will create an economic impact that will transform the firm to profitability since car automation would eliminate drivers who account for 60% of its costs. The ideology of using stage 5 automation cars, according to economists, will only plunge the taxi provider into much higher vehicle costs and main capital risks that Uber presently ducks. Uber desperately continues to preach the false gospel of being the primary key player in the cab industry, and a narrative only time will tell how true it is and whether Uber possesses marketability in the entire urban transport segment.

Taxi Deregulation in the lens of productivity

Uber emulated airline deregulation of the 1980s to offer promises that did not hold any water. Uber failed to realize that airline deregulation is different from taxi deregulation. The airline deregulation of taxi industries failed since there were no consumer/ efficiency gains that materialized. Academic research highlights that fares hiked in cities where airlines were deregulated. It resulted in declination in productivity in taxi services. The reason for the negative results was due to:

  • Fare income was not sufficient to cover operating costs.
  • The driver engagement was negligible.
  • Taxi services were limited to existing well-served territories such as airports.

Uber incorporated the modality knowing very well that it had flopped in the 80s and hoped its client would not recall the failed taxi deregulation efforts. Uber’s non-interventionist objectives and airline deregulation were stringently restricted to slackening entry and pricing limitations. At the same time, the firm strengthened antitrust, con­sumer, and labor protections in addition to financial reporting regulations. The airline deregulation was enacted via a free, fair, and transparent legislative process. Uber sought to eliminate its rivals while it rendered no taxi regulations obsolete through the radical changes in technology and overheads of driving cabs. On the contrary, airline deregulation aimed at increasing competition while maintaining level playing field conditions. 

Surge Pricing System of Uber

The bottom-line evaluation of Uber indicates that the entity is yet to discover means to employ enough cab workforce that is profitable enough to ensure users can get a cab at the touch of a button. The firm has no solid mousetrap, which consequentially does not improve the productivity of taxis, nor does it reduce the cost in the cab industry. Uber deceptively decreed that its surge pricing system would be the answer to the overflowing demand of cabs more so during peak hours/ seasons and produce like efficiency benefits similar to those of airline revenue management. However, the airline approach is quite different from that of taxis because it entirely depends on fundamental economic disparities between long-haul intercity and short-haul modern transport. For example, the airline pricing gives price-sensitive passengers huge discounts to change to flights that would otherwise have no passengers. The mix of time and price sensitivity caters to schedule-flexible clients to ensure they meet a specific level of demand, achieve an increase in client well-being and efficiency in the industry.

On the contrary to the airline operations, Uber’s surge in price fails to boost productivity and reduce the final cost of taxis. A significant number of its client is a class of prestigious and wealthy passengers; hence, the surge in price segments the less prestigious would-be customers out of the market, meaning that affluent customers have shorter durations of waiting time. The approach lessens customers’ welfare to their disadvantage. Uber has used surge pricing as a tool that allows them to extort customers whenever they want to know very well that every peak urban traveler is time-sensitive. Notwithstanding, Uber pricing decreases exter­nal public benefits like facilitating low-income workers reaching their work destinations due to poor transit. The company has failed to meet the bare minimum stipulated by regulators. Uber has been unable to fulfill essential consumer protection while at the same tie undersupplied insurance and safety. The company focuses only on private capital accumulation. This explains why Uber’s unlimited market entry leads to disastrous overcapacity. In return, it becomes an uphill task for viable operators to make any profit margins, which eventually drives them away from the industry. Also, taxi regulations offer an uneven compromise between legal competing interests accorded by government officials.

Independent Employee Factor

The struggle on who is an independent employee continues to attract so much debate on Uber’s lobbying for independent drivers within its gig economy. In the company’s perspective, having employees as permanent and pensionable is an extra cost. Uber, reinvents negative and fictitious qualification that negates the analogy/definition of an independent worker (Hickey). Notably, Uber has fought endless battles in court proceedings regarding their workers as independent workers and not conventional employees. The firm targets to contract employees for short term contracts (Cornelissen & Cholakova). Uber wants to establish independent workers as a legal status different from the description by American labor requirements and tax law. Harris and Krueger (2015) affirm that Uber plans to carry on the process of running workers –base as a no-frills market. The institution will have an opportunity to contract employees cheaply and deny them a right to enjoy insurance and medical perks, among other benefits. Uber takes strides in convincing legislators and politicians to categorize this kind of workforce, but it is against the Fair Labor Standards Act in the US (Field). Uber is already contracting its drivers in this mode before the legal court verdict. A significant number of Uber drivers are part of the sharing economy due to financial hardships and lack of chances to work full-time jobs.

            Uber, since birth, showcased itself as a business model that would make the life of its partners better, but ironically, the company is making the life of the workers more depressing. Independent workers have become precarious employees who earn meager salaries with no job benefits and the constant uncertainty of insolvency (Burton). The company continues to evade overheads for employees’ training and protection. Uber argues that drivers are not economically dependent and have an indefinite relationship with the firm. Therefore, the independent employee does not relinquish control as a regular employee does over their work hours (Arjaliès & Durand). The gray area existing in the transport industry offers innovative companies such as Uber a significant opportunity to optimize mobile apps that act as an intermediary in facilitating transportation services. 

CONCLUSION

Uber’s business canvas model has thrown the public in a whirlwind. Researchers are striving to classify Uber and its regulations. According to Uber, the company brands itself as a software organization that engages independent contractors. Yet, many consider the company to be a transportation network company that directly hires full-time employees. Over time, Uber has encompassed a sustaining innovation instead of a disruptive one that fully utilizes disruptive tech effects. However, the taxi industry has been rendered fragile due to the Coronavirus pandemic. Uber’s ride-hailing service has taken a different cynical twist such that it is difficult to find adequate drivers due to declined business. Currently, there is no good gospel that reverberates with the current situation in the taxi industry. More and more employees of Uber are facing layoffs with more than 80% of operating cities under lockdown. People are no longer traveling as they would wish. Thus, Uber has been forced to reduce its workforce by more than 3,000 individuals in their recent staff layoff (Field). Also, the taxi drivers are afraid of exposure to Covid-19 as they lack medical insurance cover. The majority are unable to step their bills, which has resulted in a rush to buy medallions. The taxi business is melted, as Nexar software reveals. Data shows that drivers put in fewer hours of human resources and cover fewer miles than there before. The company needs to come up with effective policies on Uber regulations that will favor both the company and drivers.

            Uber has managed to overcome obstacles and controversies forging forth strong. The firm has a chance to push forth its ambitious model of implementing autonomous vehicles as part of their survival technique (Polzin). Probably, entering into mergers and acquisitions will be the new way to go following Covid-19 transformation. Uber can enter a partnership with companies like General Motors (GM) of Lyft and reshape the car purchase market. The mergers will benefit and stand the test of time in the uncertain car rental business. Uber will be empowered to build a future dynasty of a fleet of cars based on a well- established group of digital inventions. Uber can also strategize and compensate cab drivers due to loss of business and particularly those that have been laid off. The cost of a taxi medallion is also inflated, but Uber can develop a system of legalizing it. The future of Uber is a blink during the Covid-19 pandemic, and there is a need to examine carefully the extent to which Covid-19 will affect cab business. 

Works Cited

Allan Krueger & Morris Kleiner. “Analyzing the Extent and Influence licensing on the Labor market.” Journal of Labor Economics (2013): 173- 202. print.

Burton, D. Opinion: In “precariat” economy, workers cling to temp jobs. 9 Aug 2015. print. 27 May 2020. < https://chicago.suntimes.com/2016/6/24/18446953/opinion-in-precariat-economy-workers-cling-to-temp-jobs>.

Chang, Hung -Hao. “The economic effects of Uber on taxi drivers.” Journal of Copetition Law & Economics (2017): 885-911. print. 29 May 2020.

Csponline. The Psychology of Fear: Exploring the Science Behind Horror Entertainment. 10 Aug 2016. print. 8 May 2020.

Cyril Bouquet & Chloe Renault. Taxis vs. Uber: A Perfect Example of Resistance to Change. 2020. print. 28 May 2020. <https://www.seattlebusinessmag.com/business-corners/retail-services/taxis-vs-uber-perfect-example-resistance-change>.

DL Arjaliès & R, Durand. “Product categories as judgment devices: The moral awakening of the investment industry.” Organization Science, Vol.30(5) (2019): 885-911. print.

F. Bardhi & G.M Eckhardt. ” Access-Based Consumption: The Case of Car Sharing.” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 39(4) (2012): 881-898. print.

Farber, S. Henry. “Why You Can’t Find a Taxi in the Rain and Other Labor Supply Lessons from cab drivers .” The Quarterly Journal of Economics , Vol. 130(4) (2015): 1781-1824. print.

Field, Matthew. What does the future hold for Uber after the latest round of job cuts? 19 May 2020. print. 29 May 2019. <https://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/2020/05/19/does-future-hold-uber-latest-round-job-cuts/https://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/2020/05/19/does-future-hold-uber-latest-round-job-cuts/v>.

Guillaume Frechette et al. Frictions in a Competitive, Regulated market :Evidence from taxis . 10 Aug 2015. print. 29 May 2020.

Joep Cornelissen & Magdalena Cholakova. “Profits Uber everything? The gig economy and the morality of category work.” SAGE (2019): 55-60. print.

Jonathan D. Hall et al. “Is Uber a substitute or complement for public transit?” Journal of Urban Economics, Vol. 108 (2018): 36-50. print.

M. Barbaro & A. Parker. Candidates Will Hail a Ride, but Not Necessarily the Uber Labor Model. 2015. print. 29 May 2020. <http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/17/us/politics/presidential-candidates-hail-uber-rides-doubts-on-model.html?_r=0>.

Polzin, S.E. “How new technologies & Autonomous vehicles may change public transportation.” Centr for Urban Transportation Research, Vol.7 (2016): 15-18. print.

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1 comment

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