Globalization has had a significant contribution both socially and economically. Although the focus has been on the socio-economic impacts of globalization, it is important to consider globalization from the cultural point of view. This paper conducts a literature review on the cultural implication of globalization and the role of media in cultural integration.
The paper will cover the following topics
Edward, S. (1978). Orientalism. New York: Random House. pp.1-9.
The author (Edward Said) explores the cultural differences between the West, East, and America. The cultural, social, and political differences between different parts of the world were evidenced during Siad’s visit to Beirut in the eve of the 1975-1976 civil wars. Of particular interest to the author was the Nerval and Chateaubriand Orient, which was an important European invention through exotic beings, remarkable experiences, haunting memories, and serving as place of romance. According to the author, this concept is deeply rooted among the Europeans, yet Americans, on the other hand, have little value for the Orient. From the America’s point of view, Orient is Far East (Japan and China) culturally practice that has no value in the society. On the contrary, the British and the French lead other European countries in supporting Orientalism given its long traditional association with Europe. According to the author, Orient has a special traditional influence and importance to the European countries. More specific, Orient is geographically adjacent to Europe, hence, strong interest from these Western countries. Besides, Orient was a special place for the oldest colonies given its richness and cultural greatness. This place further played a fundamental role with respect to cultural preservation, languages, European civilization. Orient, therefore, has been significant in defining the European cultural materialism. The Orient was also critical in defining the European image, doctrine, imagery, colonial styles, and colonial bureaucracies. Although both the French and the Britain were deeply involved in the Orient, there was a significant cultural and historical difference in their level of involvement. The author’s only concern is the fear for inaccuracy and distortion that arises from dogmatic and positivistic localization on the issue of Orientalism and its sub-cultures. From my evaluation, this is rich and reliable information source that comprehensively explore the topic of Orientalism, its origins, and source limitations.
Robertson, R. (1994). Globalization or Glocalization? Journal of International Communication. 1(1). pp.33-52.
The author explores the concept of globalization from the cultural point of view. According to Robertson, globalization is no threats to local identities, but a tool for strengthening of local identities as it allow people to overtly express their unique cultural identities when it appears to be threatened. Glocalization emerged as a new kind of globalization. No matter whether it is Japanese cartoons, African folk music, or Chinese martial art, local culture expressions usually become strengthened to meet the need of international market or transnational environment. It is of great importance to acknowledge and respect cultural differences and only by fully understanding and utilizing the uniqueness of local cultures would any global movie maker to have a finger in the pie of international media arena. Robertson asserts that Globalization does not mean homogenization, but rather entails both homogenization and heterogenization. In Robertson’s view, many people tend to consider globalization increasingly stronger and gradually overwhelming or dominating others, but the those who think that way do not really see the concept of globalization as inherently homogenizing. For instance, in spite of cultural differences, certain types of media contents have a universal appeal. No matter where people live, there are things they appreciate in common, what is important is to be aware of this nature and find the balance of universality and cultural diversities. When utilizing “Chinese elements”, the objective would be to reach a perfect fit between aesthetic scope of local culture and the international aesthetic taste. The process for movies to transcend cultures relies upon the understanding of audience that are from different nationalities, different countries, and differ culture backgrounds.
Jenkins, H. (2004). Pop Cosmopolitanism: Mapping Cultural Flows in an age of Media Convergence. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp.152-172.
Jenkins has a feeling that locals’ diversity happens to be the principle that allows all locals to stick to their respective cultures. There can be no cosmopolitans without locals. Cosmopolitans transcend regional boundaries and limitations of certain social classes, and enables people to perceive things from a global and perspective. It also allow locals to learn to observe the customs, traditions, and values of different countries and societies, understanding that one’s own culture is just one of the many diversified cultures in the world. Jenkins discourses in Pop Cosmopolitanism that global convergence is giving rise to a new pop cosmopolitanism, cosmopolitans embrace cultural difference. The direction of transnational flows is not unilateral: they flow to one another. In such a way, cultural media resources have been allocated globally in a complementary manner. Today, foreign media agencies have been working together with their Chinese counterparts to take advantage of powerful local media platforms to cater to Chinese consumers and have achieved a win-win situation. At the same time, Chinese culture is being spread to the world more than ever, through international media products and services distributed by global media providers.
Hannerz, UIf. (1990). ‘Cosmopolitans and Locals in World Culture’, in M. Featherstone (ed) Global Culture, London: Sage.
Hannerz believes that globalization is not just a new word for economic imperialism or cultural Westernization. The direction of transnational flows is not unilateral: they flow to one another. In such a way, cultural media resources have been allocated globally in a complementary manner. Foreign media agencies have been working together with their Chinese counterparts to take advantage of powerful local media platforms to cater to Chinese consumers, a partnership that has proved beneficial to all the parties. At the same time, Chinese culture is being spread to the world more than ever, through international media products and services distributed by global media providers. The adaptation to local cultures in media is significant for Hollywood to cater to Chinese market, which should be encouraged to ensure that people from all over the world can share the fruit of human civilization and cultural heritage; the treasure of artworks in media forms from countries such as China should be made available through international collaboration, so that they can be better preserved and presented to the world. The bottom line, however, would be to respect local identities and be fully aware of what a great part they play. The Chinese culture is an integral part in the world culture that cannot be bypassed nor ignored, even though the world is yet to capture the entire essence of it, it can still feel its richness and profoundness. The adaptations of Chinese elements by Hollywood does not only bring commercial success, but also ushers the prelude of the fusion of Chinese culture into the world. This being the beginning, Hannerz believes that what Hollywood has brought is just a tip of the iceberg, and the best is yet to come.
Edward, S. (1978). Orientalism. New York: Random House. pp.1-9.
Hannerz, UIf. (1990). ‘Cosmopolitans and locals in world culture’, in M. Featherstone (ed) Global Culture, London: Sage.
Jenkins, H. (2004). Pop Cosmopolitanism: Mapping Cultural Flows in an age of Media Convergence. Berkeley: University of California Press. 152-172.
Robertson, R. (1994). Globalization or Glocalization? Journal of international Communication. 1(1). 33-52.
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