Lorenz Curve and a low Gini Coefficient

Italy enjoys one of the largest economies in the Euro-11, ranking third behind France and Germany. Italy was unified in 1861 following nearly 1400 years of domination by city-states, foreign powers, and the Papal See. During these years, different cultures developed in the north and south, leading to great economic disparities as the north, with its Venetian, Milanese and Florentine heritages, developed a strong industrial economy. By comparison, the south, formerly dominated by Naples and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, remains rural and undeveloped.

GDP and GDP Per Capita,

Italy’s GDP for 2001 was 1,217 billion Euros, or 1,095 billion dollars at the average exchange rate for 2001. (Economist Intelligence Unit, January 7, 2003.) Estimated GDP for 2002 was $1.438 trillion after adjustments for Purchasing Power Parity, with a 2002 per capita GDP of 25,000 after a similar adjustment. (The World Factbook, 2002) GDP per capita was 18,800 in 2001, while GDP per capita adjusted for purchasing power parity stood at 26,150. This was up from 25,230 in 2000 and 24,025 in 1999. Overall GDP grew an average of 2% between 1997 and 2001. (Economist Intelligence Unit, January 7, 2003.) Purchasing power adjustments used by the Economist and the CIA’s World Factbook differ slightly.

Income Distribution

Income distribution in Italy is surprisingly egalitarian; in economic terms, the country has a favorable Lorenz Curve and a low Gini Coefficient. Although income distribution is not as egalitarian as that in Scandinavian countries, it favors the poor and middle class more than in the United Kingdom and United States. Wage and income distribution favors the industrial north to the agrarian south of Italy, which has roughly 20% unemployment. In 2000, the top 10% of the population earned 27% of the GDP, whereas the bottom 10% earned 2% of GDP. (The World Factbook, 2002). A report published by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions in Fall of 2002 showed that inflation had re-emerged and that the disparity between productivity growth and wage growth have caused many to question whether or not a process of income redistribution would emerge.

Currency Value and Trend

Italy’s currency, the Euro, is new to the nation as of January, 2002 when it replaced the Italian Lira. Currently (www.economist.com, April 14, 2003) it is worth 1.07 dollars. When the Euro was first introduced, it was worth less than one U.S. dollar. In 2001 before the currency went into circulation and was merely a metric, it was worth an average of 90 U.S. cents. (www.economist.com, April 14, 2003) However, the smooth transition of Western Europe’s largest currencies to the Euro caused it to strengthen, along with trepidation among international investors over U.S. markets and the possibility of future terrorist attacks on United States soil.

Government Spending vs. Revenue

According to the Economist, “The 2003 draft budget included personal income tax cuts for low income groups, but the top rate is to remain unchanged at 44%. The corporation tax rate is to be cut from 36% to 34%.” (Economist, 7 January 2003) Government expenses in 2001 totaled 504 billion in 2002 while expenditures totaled 517 billion. (The World Factbook, 2002)

Government Debt and Trend

Public debt represented 110.47% of GDP in 2001, or 1,345 billion Euros. This represented a significant decrease year-over-year, from 111.44% in 2000 and 115.88% in 1999. (Economist, September 23, 2002)

Balance of Payments and Trend.

The value of exports of goods in 2001 amounted to U.S.$242.4bn and imports U.S.$226.6bn, making the foreign trade surplus U.S.$15.9bn. In the same year, the current-account balance recorded a small deficit of U.S.$200m. This was markedly reduced from a balance of U.S.$5.8bn in 2000. (Economist, January 7, 2003)

The Economist Intelligence Unit. Italy: Economic Data. September 23, 2002.

The Economist Intelligence Unit. Italy: Factsheet. January 7, 2003.

The World Factbook 2002:Italy CIA 2002, www.cia.gov

European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. “Income distribution developments since the 1993 incomes policy agreement.” 2002.

The Economist. Currency Exchange Rates: April 14, 2003. www.economist.com

Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects


Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper