The main elements of enlightenment thought were education, reason, human experience, truth religion and the government. The traditions were challenged by authority and the right to rule. People believed that authority dominated experience. Those in authority were thought to be wiser than those who had the human experience. The enlightened rejected the concept of the divine right to rule and they justified that their position was based on their usefulness to the state.(European History/Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment 2013).
Frederick II of Prussia was justified as “the Great” after he declared himself a servant of state, extended education to all, and established a professional bureaucracy. He created a uniform judicial system and abolished torture. It is during his reign that Prussia innovated agriculture by using potatoes and turnips to replenish the soil. Also, Frederick established religious freedom in Prussia.
Catherine II accomplished the title “the Great” after her reforms which were restrictions on torture, religious toleration, education for girls and the 1767 Legislative Commission, which reported to her on the state of the Russian people.(European History/Scientific Revolution and
Which event had the greatest influence on France’s future?
The Explosive Summer of 1789 was the first event
France faced a financial crisis, caused by military expenditures and aristocracy, which resistedany cuts in its returns from the treasury and any taxes on its wealth in 1789. Theresult of this lapse of leadership was a political near-breakdown, followed bya sudden explosion of popular unrest and agitation.
The second event was the First Phase of Middle-Class Revolution
This was shortly after the march on Versailles, the Assembly achieved somepolitical stability by declaring martial law, to be enforced by the NationalGuard. The most dramatic action of the Assembly occurred on the night of August4, 1789.
The third event was the Drift towards Radicalism
This was after June 1791, when the king and his family attempted to flee thecountry, the Revolution drifted steadily towards radicalism.
The Jacobin republic event had the most effect on France with the growth of patriotism
What did Napoleon accomplish in France, and what brought about his fall?
Accomplishment of Napoleon ranged from military victory, reforms in education and the judicial system with establishment of the Code Napoleon (Miss Lavelle 2013)
The fall of Napoleon was as a result of despising the people as incapable with disinterested conduct, conceited, and obsessed by the notion of equality. Further his colossal egoism, his habitual disregard of others, his jealous passion for power, his impatience, his vain untruthful boasting, his unbridled self-sufficiency and lack of moderation led to the end of his rule (France History – First French Empire 2013)
How did British society address some of the changes in peoples’ lives that were brought on by industrialization?
The effect on the industrial revolution on European society was an effect of change from traditional methods of farming to modern agriculturelabor-intensive economy based on farming and handicrafts to a more capital-intensive economy based on manufacturing by machines, specialized labor, and industrial factories. The changes were more positive with increase in employment, more capital accumulation, labor specialization, surplus food among others.
The British society started the formation of new social classes; there was growth of cities, population grew up and slums started developing with less housing in the cities. Hospitals and other educational institutes were seen on the rise. There were also trade unions to fight for the working conditions of the workers.(The Industrial Revolution and Its Impact on European Society 2013)
Wars, depending on which side they had fought on. The containment of France was done by strengthening the states and territories surrounding France, especially those which had been previously over-run by the Grand Armeé. The restoration of the legitimate rulers was resolved by restoration of Bourbon dynasty of Spain, an ally to the Great Powers against Napoleon, only seemed natural. Rewarding and punishing of those involved in the Napoleonic Wars, depending on which side they had fought on were rewarded through division of territories (Kristian Ola 2013).
Qn. 6.The type of conflict that Europeans expected after world-war 1 was a military conflict between nations. The kind of war that really took place was a war of power and to gain popularity. The reason is most European countries had experienced industrial revolution and they had surplus resources to use on military expenditure.
How the ideas of glasnost and perestroika helped to bring about the end of the Soviet Union.
Glasnostand perestroika introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev in 1985, and helped bring about the end of the Soviet Union by 1991.
Glasnost ended the strict censorship of the 1960s and 1970s, and encouraged political dissidents and others who openly criticized the one-party rule of the Communists.
Perestroika upset the centralized planning of the economy, which had put more emphasis on developing industry, science, and agriculture than on meeting the demands of consumers, who turned instead to the black market. (asu.edu 2013)
The questions were all answered
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