Meningitis infects the meninges, the delicate membranes that house the spinal cord and the brain. It is a rare infection that can affect adults and children alike. The disease manifests in several types such as through viral, bacterial and fungal varieties. Bacterial meningitis is the most dangerous and infectious variety. It is a life threatening disease. It infects people in physical contact. Incidentally, viral meningitis is not as severe as most of the patients that develop the disease recover on their own without seeking treatment (Wang et al., 2014). Fungal meningitis is the rarest form. It occurs in people whose immune system has been compromised.
Bacterial meningitis is caused by bacteria that enters the body and relocates to the brain and spinal cord or when bacteria invade the meninges. The point of entry can be a skull fracture, ear or sinus infection, of surgery. Bacteria that cause bacterial meningitis include Streptococcus pneumonia, (the most common cause of bacterial meningitis) Neisseria meningitides, Haemophilus infleunzae, and Listeria monocytogenes (people who have weakened immune systems are most susceptible). Bacterial meningitis is commonly caused by S pneumonia in America and other countries across the globe.The common serotypes that lead to bacterial meningitis include 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 19, 18C, and 23. Pneumococcal strain 19A is the most notable serotype that causes the disease and can attack both children and adults (Kaplan et al., 2014; Wang et al., 2014).
Viral meningitis is caused by enteroviruses which are common in late summer and early fall. Viral meningitis is however mild and clears without medication. Chronic meningitis on the other hand is caused by organisms that are slow-growing e.g. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and fungi. Fungal meningitis is uncommon with only Cryptococcal meningitis being the common form and it affects persons with immune deficiencies e.g. AIDs. Other causes of meningitis are noninfectious and include drug allergies, chemical reactions, inflammatory diseases, and some types of cancer.
The entry point for pathogens that cause meningitis is the nasopharynx or ears into the bloodstream. They pass through the endothelial cells to enter the subarachnoid space, and then penetrate the porous capillaries of choroid plexus. They may be carried by granulocytes too. Provision of sufficient nutrients for the thriving of bacteria is one of the reasons why the Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is an ideal medium for infection. It also houses a couple of phagocytic cells. The antibodies are also low (McGill et al., 2016). At first there is uninhibited multiplication of bacteria. At this point the bacteria can be seen and identified through cultures, smears or through Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detection of antigens prior to inflammation.
Bacteria carry the potential to destroy the blood capillaries and the brain directly. The toxins generated by bacteria cause neuronal apoptosis. The endotoxin produced by bacteria triggers clotting which in turn leads to disseminated intravascular coagulation. This state leads to more severe injury because of the inflammatory reaction to bacteria. The innate immune system of the brain found in the choroid.
Actually, if neutrophytes increase in number, they can damage brain nerves, vessels and tissue. Cerebral infarcts are caused by Vasculitis and clotting. This brain damage during attack by meningitis is as a result of bacterial action in part and also the reaction to bacteria by the immune response system. The brain is sufficiently wired to deal with inflammation. However, in some situations, the unbalanced defense responses can be injurious. Increased intracranial pressure from cerebral edema is the most severe and dangerous complication of bacterial meningitis. The edema could be vasogenic as a result of heightened vascular permeability, interstitial, cytotoxic of cerebral hypoxia, high complement-fixing antibody volume or a combination of all the mentioned factors (Liechti et al., 2015). High intracranial pressure on its part leads to decreased perfusion, neuronal necrosis and hypoxia/ischemia.
The relation between manifestation and pathophysiology
Pathogens causing meningitis enter the CNS by either hematogenous, a common path, or via direct extension from a site that is contiguous. Neonates can infected through maternal genital secretions that are non sterile via the placenta or from the surrounding environment. The cascading of the inflammation causes cerebral edema and heightened intracranial pressure that causes severe headache and a swelling fontanelle or reflexes that are abnormal. Cerebral edema causes a number of neurologic complications and even death. The multiplication of bacteria is remarkably fast after they enter the subarachnoidal space. The CSF bacterial elements trigger the production of a range of inflammatory mediators, which on their part promote the entry of leucocytes into the CSF. This causes fever, headache and stiff neck suddenly. Other symptoms such as nausea, photophobia, vomiting and alteration of oneâ€™s mental status also manifest.
Specific health promotion behaviors
Being vaccinated can reduce your chances of contracting bacterial meningitis. The vaccine is safe and is used against the A, C, Y and W-135 strains. These are responsible for 70% of bacterial meningitis infections. Booster shots may be needed intermittently (McGill et al., 2016).
Usually meningitis cases are not life-threatening. To prevent infection spread, children may be isolated while being treated for the initial 24 hours before the medicines take effect. Some critically ill children may need intensive care.
Children and their parents need to be supported initially because of the shock they are subjected to by the attack and the subsequent diagnosis. Because people fear meningitis, relatives and friends may worry about the possibility of developing the disease. They should be reassured that such risk is significantly low. Prophylaxis should be provided for household contacts.
Community resource for persons with meningitis
Follow up of children that have been infected and treated of meningitis is important. Some cases manifest gradual and continuous hearing loss after the meningitis attack. Coma, seizures and hydrocephalus contribute to poor treatment outcomes because of delaying the onset of the treatment.
Families will enjoy extended support after discharge. Apart from the routine health, educational and social services, the meningitis Trust and the Meningitis Research Foundation support families and provide information regarding the illness ant outcomes of treatment. If a child has been disabled, financial assistance and provision of equipment may suffice.
Although there is commonly an extended period of convalescence, most children recover fully. Some children may manifest temporary behavior change as a result of hospitalization. Nevertheless, there are also a notable number of deaths that result from bacterial meningitis infections. A few people may develop permanent problems.
Kaplan, S. L., Edward, M. S., Nordli Jr, D. R., & Torchia, M. M. (2014). Bacterial meningitis in children older than one month: Clinical features and diagnosis. Waltham (MA): UpToDate.
Liechti, F. D., Grandgirard, D., & Leib, S. L. (2015). Bacterial meningitis: insights into pathogenesis and evaluation of new treatment options: a perspective from experimental studies. Future microbiology, 10(7), 1195-1213.
McGill, F., Heyderman, R. S., Panagiotou, S., Tunkel, A. R., & Solomon, T. (2016). Acute bacterial meningitis in adults. The Lancet, 388(10063), 3036-3047.
Wang, A. Y., Machicado, J. D., Khoury, N. T., Wootton, S. H., Salazar, L., & Hasbun, R. (2014). Community?Acquired Meningitis in Older Adults: Clinical Features, Etiology, and Prognostic Factors. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 62(11), 2064-2070.
Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?
- Plagiarism free papers
- Timely delivery
- Any deadline
- Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
- Subject-relevant academic writer
- Adherence to paper instructions
- Ability to tackle bulk assignments
- Reasonable prices
- 24/7 Customer Support
- Get superb grades consistently
Online Academic Help With Different Subjects
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
What discipline/subjects do you deal in?
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
What if I don’t like the paper?
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
- When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
- We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.
In the event that you don’t like your paper:
- The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
- We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
- Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.
Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
What if the paper is plagiarized?
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
When will I get my paper?
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
Will anyone find out that I used your services?
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
How our Assignment Help Service Works
1. Place an order
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2. Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3. Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4. Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!