Computers Are an Underutilized Resource for High School Physical Education Teachers
Computers have become an integral part of the high school learning environment, beginning in the early 1990s. They provide a vast variety of resources to help enhance student education through presentation of material in a variety of media and act as an enhancement to teacher lessons. They can sometimes free teachers from routine tasks, allowing them to bring greater depth to the classroom environment.
The use of computers has revolutionized the learning experience for many students and has provided a valuable resource. Many of these resources have pointed this technology towards traditional subjects such as math and physics. The physical education classroom could enjoy just as many benefits from the use of a computer as the math of physics classroom. Yet most do not utilize this resource, either by choice, or administrative decision.
This research will focus on the reasons for and levels of usage of computer technology in the physical education departments of many high schools. The research will involve the use of a survey administered to high school physical education teachers regarding their use and level of knowledge of computers. The end result will be an overview of the use of technology by physical education teachers. It will support the thesis that computer technology is an underutilized resource in high school physical education departments. It will explore the reasons for this trend and suggest methods to remedy it.
Computers are an Underutilized Resource for High School Physical Education Teachers
Computer technology is an integral part of other subjects such as math and science, but has been seldom used as a learning tool in physical education. Other than for record keeping, the computer has been used very little. Children need to know the basics of physical conditioning and other topics that are not covered in health class. In health class, they learn the basics, but physical education could be so much more than it is today. Children need to learn how to stay fit. We know the health benefits and the advantages that exercise have on the brain’s ability to learn. Physical education could use computer technology to give students a broader understanding of these topics.
In response the adoption of Federal guidelines, many States have adopted standards that schools should use to achieve educational standards in this area. Computers could be an asset in achieving every aspect of these goals, yet they are not being utilized. In the few cases where computers are being used by physical education departments, they are not being used to their full potential.
The purpose of this research will be to determine the level of usage of computers by high school physical education departments as well as the level of knowledge that physical education teachers have regarding the use of this technology. It will also give insight as to the attitudes of physical education teachers towards the use of computers in the physical education setting. It is the ultimate goal of this research to develop a solution to get more physical education departments to use computers for the maximum benefit of their student population.
Computers are an integral part of many subjects such as math and physics, but one seldom associates computers with the subject of physical education. This study will explore the various aspects of computer use by high school physical education teachers to enhance their lesson plans. It will explore the current level and frequency of usage, the level of knowledge of the staff, examine any difficulties associated with he use of computers in the physical education setting.
Computer education is not a mandatory part of many college curricula. This stems from a long history that pictures the physical education teacher on the baseball diamond with hoards to screaming kids running around. This reflects a traditional view. However the face of physical education has been changing over many years. Now as a result of natural changes in educational role, advances in knowledge and the adoption of Federal and state standards for the inclusion of a wide variety of information into the curriculum, the physical education teacher now finds themselves in need of some of the resources and techniques used by teachers in other areas.
Physical Education now encompasses education about the various body systems and organs, nutrition, the effects of exercise, how to set individual fitness goals and make a plan to achieve them. It involves body mechanics and how to avoid disease and injury. It also involves how to work as a team. These subjects are taught in a more traditional classroom setting and require the physical education to become a more traditional classroom teacher, whereas in the past, they were thought of as more of a coach. Roles are changing for the physical education teacher and the methods and technology must change to meet their needs. If they do not, the only ones to suffer are the students.
Rationale for Study
The rationale for this study is founded, not on a wealth of existing information, but rather on a lack of information. There is a large amount of information regarding the use of computers and technology in the math classroom as well as in other subjects such as history or physics. There is however, little information available on the use of the computer in the physical education setting.
A preliminary examination of the literature available on the subject, resources and the current software available was conducted. Very few resources were found and the one that were found had a great deal of general knowledge and did little to give results of studies of specific applications. There is very little software available, it is limited in use and can be expensive.
Many reasons for the lack of usage of computers by physical education departments was suggested by the preliminary research. One of the key issues was accessibility and funding issues. It was found that many schools have limited resources to put into computer technology and they had to prioritize its distribution. As a result, computers ended up in the more technically oriented subjects and the physical education departments were considered last. This may be due to ideals about traditional roles of physical education teachers as a coach, rather than as a teacher.
Another factor is that there has nor been a focus on the technical knowledge base of physical education teachers relating to computer use. In order to get the most out of computer technology, the teacher must know more than how to turn it on and use the software. They must understand the principles behind the technology in order to find ever increasing new uses for the packages. There is a general perceived disinterest about computers by physical education teachers. This may be due to a socially oriented stereotype, or may reflect a real general trend in the personality of the physical education teacher. This topic could be studied in future research.
Computers have the availability to save time and add a valuable element to the physical education classroom. Yet, they are seldom used. The rationale for this study comes from a vast lack of knowledge regarding this trend. This study will explore the issues surrounding this topic and the results will help to find solutions in an attempt to bring more computers into usage in the physical education classroom.
Much of the information about computer usage and advantages in the classroom will be drawn from studies highlighting the advantages and successes of computer programs implemented in other subject areas. The implementation of computer technology in the classroom involves the formulation of a set of goals and a plan for achieving those goals using computer technology. Failure to formulate goals and develop a plan for achieving them results in a program without focus and the computer becomes little more than a plastic box on a table. A school wide plan for the use of technology should be implemented. However, individual plans should be a part of the larger whole as well.
There are many key principles and concepts in the development of a school wide technology implementation plan. These same elements will apply to the development of a plan to utilize computers in physical education as well. Many of the topics relevant to other subject areas also apply to the physical education department and the development of individualized technology plans. One key goal that should be included in the plan is a plan that uses computer technology in a manner that enhances the attainment of State Educational standards. This should be the key focus of implementing a plan for the implementation of a computer technology plan in the physical education department.
Scope of Study
The purpose of this study is to identify the key issues involved in the lack of computer usage in the physical education classroom. It is the eventual goal to be able to implement a plan to rectify this problem. This research will identify the key issues involved in the current state of usage, identify obstacles and propose solutions for these obstacles. This study will be of use to the physical education departments and administration of many school districts. It will serve as a springboard for them to develop their own plans and ideas.
The focus of the study will be on the high school level, but the concepts derived from it will be applicable on the Junior High and lower levels as well. They computer technology involvement may not be as extensive as on the High School level, but it will have some use. The focus of the study is on the high school level as these students are beginning to gain exposure to computers in other areas.
The study will encompass only high schools in my state of residence. The reasoning for this is that they must comply with the same set of State educational guidelines. Variability in state guidelines and requirements could result in different result for different states; cue to the level of need based on state guidelines. In addition, different states offer different levels of support and funding for the purchase and training of computer equipment. The funding levels would definitely have an effect on the results obtained. These confounding variables will be eliminated by using only high schools in the same state.
It is expected that these results will be applicable to other states across the United States and will be adaptable to various circumstances other than those for which they were obtained. The elimination of the above mentioned variable makes this possible. The ideal research will be applicable in many other circumstances other than that for which it was designed.
This research for which this proposal is written will support the thesis that computer technology is an underutilized resource by High School Physical Education teachers. The null hypothesis will state the level of computer technology by High School physical Education teachers is state of the art and no improvements need to be made.
There are several research questions that this study hopes to answer. The first is in relation to the thesis and will approach the topic of computer usage in the physical education setting from several angles. The first will be to determine the number of computers in use in the physical education department. The second will be to determine how these computers are being used. The third aspect will be if the computers are being used by the students and in what manner.
In order to accomplish these tasks a number of research questions will have to be included in the survey that will be used to find answers to the research questions. The survey will be divided into distinctive sections corresponding to the research questions. In this manner, it will resemble four separate surveys. The survey design will have to contain enough questions in order to fully answer the research questions. However this will have to be balanced with the need to keep it short enough so that people are not discouraged by the length and fail to respond. It is the goal to keep the survey to around 100 questions including demographic data.
The research will be divided into several sections. The first section will be comprised of the topics in the above paragraph, measuring the level of computer use in the physical education department. Second section will assess the level of computer knowledge and technical skills of the physical education teacher. It will assess the level of formal training, the frequency and use patterns of the physical education teachers.
The third section of the research will identify any barriers that prevent greater use of computers in the physical education department, It will discuss issues such as funding, inadequate space, or a general lack of interest by administrative staff.
The fourth section of this study will explore the opinions and attitudes of high school physical education teachers regarding computers in general, the usefulness of computers in enhancing their ability to convey the class content and their willingness to accept greater levels of computer usage in the physical education classroom,
This may seem to be a large number of objectives for the study, but an assessment of all of these areas is necessary to assess state of computer usage in physical education departments. It must be remembered that it is the ultimate goal to be able to devise a list of suggestions to help gain greater usage of computers in the physical education classroom. In order to do this we must first identify the problem, then we must determine the scope and severity of the problem. We must try to discover the reason for the current state of being and then determine if the suggestions proposed would be feasible. These tasks will be accomplished by the use of a survey that is divided into the above mentioned four sections. Answers in these four sections will give clear insight into the research goals and questions in an organized manner.
It is expected that the survey layout and design corresponding to the four research question categories will help to evaluate the overall situation and propose solutions to these problems. The format for the study will be a problem/resolution format in which question are proposed, data collected via survey and the data analyzed in relation to the questions. These results will be used to develop a set of recommendations to resolve the issue of underusage of computer technology in physical education. If the data proves the null hypothesis to be true, then recommendations will be made to maintain the current state of affairs and provide for greater enhancement of this usage.
It is believed that this research design will effectively answer the research questions and that the data will effectively support or disprove the hypothesis. The data will be subject to many confounding variables such as differences in demographics, differences in computer experience and training, and attitudes towards computers in general. Survey questions will be specifically targeted to eliminate these variables to as much extent as possible.
As a part of preliminary research for this proposal the major texts concerning the use of computers and physical education revealed a surprisingly limited number of resources. There are many articled written on the subject of improving results using computers in other subjects of learning, such as math, physics and other subjects. However, there is relatively little written on the application and use of computers as a tool to aid physical education. The subject of this research is the underutilization of computers in the physical education setting and the lack of literature on this subject would lead us to believe that this subject has not received much attention.
Computers are being used as an aid in Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance. However, the effects of this usage has not been fully studied to date (McLean, 1996). The use of computers in these areas has a potentially larger role than is currently being utilized.
Current State of Technology and Usage majority of the information on the state of the art in computer technology in the classroom comes from disciplines other than physical education or the movement arts. Some of the applications from other disciplines are useful in these areas and are helpful in many of the same ways. However, these usages certainly do not reflect the full potential that computers have in the education setting. Let us now examine some the technology available.
Computers are not replacing classroom teachers, nor were they intended to do so. They are simply supposed to provide support for classroom instruction. There are many commercial and shareware programs available. These programs have the ability to track grading, track student athletic performance, fitness, conduct health assessments, provide simulations of disease, monitor research projects, and many other functions as well. Many of these programs use hypertext to link navigation points in the software, making it an interactive tool, instead of just a book in electronic format.
Many of these applications are menu based (McLean & Hill, 1993). In a study using Hypertext software, college students preparing for internships reduced the number of hours of counseling needed and the amount of classroom time as well (McLean & Hill, 1993). This allowed the classroom time to be spent on more productive tasks. This is a primary example of how computers are being used in the classroom. They are being used to make time spent in the classroom more efficient.
Traditional encyclopedias and reference books are being replaced by interactive Cds that contain pictures, sound and video. These media appeal to all of a student’s senses not just the visual. They keep the student’s interest and make learning a fun experience instead of drudgery. Some prime examples are in the kinethesiology classroom where students can observe and listen to the mechanics of movement in slow motion. They can repeat those parts they do not understand. In health education classrooms the growth of an embryo can be depicted to birth. This simulation is the product of technology allowing for the actual pictures to be used from inside the uterus. Instructional topics remain traditional, but the delivery is nontraditional and allows the student to move at his/her own pace (Gold, 1991). These simulations are the greatest advancements in classroom instruction for quite some time.
Another application that is gaining popularity is Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI). This technology provides students with an alternative to the traditional classroom setting and frees the instructor from routine tasks that can be just as easily performed by the computer. This application can be used to give physical education students the reasoning behind certain activities (Mohnsen, 1995). The instructor can custom create the materials that they need to support their lesson plans. This can make more efficient use of classroom time and can free the instructor to meet other student needs. It takes some time initially to program, but saves much more time in the end than it takes to implement. CAI provides unlimited resources for practice, review, and corrective action. It makes the student actively involved in the learning process. One example of the use of this program is that a survey can be created of student eating habits and this can be tied into a unit on nutrition. An active working model of the heart can be created and subjected to various levels of exercise. There are many applications of CAI that can help to enhance classroom instruction.
The advent of the Internet is another great tool that can be used to enhance classroom instruction. There are hundreds of simulations of various human organs functioning in streaming video format. Students can actually watch their bodies in action. There are even simulations of diseases such as a diseased heart damaged kidney. Students can watch the efficiency of the heart drop as the artery clogs and eventually stops altogether. These simulations make the concepts that are being taught in class, very real to the students. They go beyond the standard lecture format and engage the student in the process. The students can even take notes and later print them, right on the screen.
There are many valuable websites offering credible information on health and physical fitness. For instance, the International Food Information Council Foundation is an excellent source for nutrition-related topics. The Food and Drug Administration has an excellent informative website with much credible information. Information such as this is wasted if not used as an integral part of the learning process.
In a survey of the number of health related websites, and physical education websites. It may be noted that there is wealth of health related websites but very few, by comparison in the area of physical fitness. There are a number of sports related websites, but many of them are not considered to be informative in nature. They offer little educational value. Many of the health related websites are good sources of information, but one must be cautious as there are many that claim to give credible information and are instead a commercial website, boasting health information to sell a product. The credibility of the information on the Internet itself should be a topic of discussion in the health and physical education classroom. Students need to know how to spot a credible source and how to spot information that is not based on science, but on sales. They should learn how to avoid these pitfalls and evaluate credible information.
Many schools are developing interschool networks to transmit information and aid communication. In addition, students can be connected via satellite communication. This allows the use of distance learning or a surprise guest speaker without the need to travel. A paperless classroom allows students to submit work via email or other electronic format. The assignment is turned in, graded and then returned to the student’s electronic mailbox (McLean, 1996). Aside from assisting traditional students, these new technologies are a great necessity for disabled students, allowing them to participate, even if they cannot physically attend. The student no longer needs to be physically present in the classroom.
Critical Issues in Implementing the Use of computers in Physical Education
As was demonstrated in the previous section, the potential for classroom enhancment using computers is great. There are many applications and resources to make learning fun and more effective using a variety of media techniques. Much of the information found was from 1996, or older. This was the time when schools were just beginning to use this technology and discover its capabilities. There has been very little information since then and as has been proposed by this research, the technology is not being utilized to its full potential in most circumstances. One would expect that given the advantages and possibilities of computers in physical education, this technology would be the standard in physical and health education, but it is not. Now let us examine some of the reasons why this is so.
In implementing a computer aided learning situation, there are many considerations. The first and foremost issue for many schools is the one of cost. If a school only has limited resources to spend on computers, then they will likely choose to place these resources in math, physics, or other technical areas. The use of computers in physical education takes a lower priority, as there are other resources to convey the same information. However, the differences in math and physics, when computer aided are profound. The issue of whether computers are useful in physical education is not the question. However, when the resources are limited that school district must often make tough decisions.
Another issue is that computer literacy is not a necessary part of the college curriculum for physical education teachers. Computers are not the usually associated with these courses and many of these persons have little interest in computers. They are not familiar with the technology and are not as likely to use it to their advantage. This may be due to a lack of interest or a lack of knowledge, either way, physical education teachers are less likely to be computer savvy than teachers choosing other subject matter.
Computers will never replace the classroom teacher, but instead offer them many time-saving advantages that will allow them to make the most efficient use of their time and resources. Teacher quality was the factor that has been found to most have a positive influence on student learning (Darling-Hammond and Berry,1998). Therefore a teacher who is lacking in the knowledge of the technology needed to enhance their classroom is only hurting the students. Computers and technology should become a core requirement for college curriculum for physical education teachers, not just an elective. A teacher who is aware of and able to use the latest technology can give their students many advantages through the use to this technology. Improving professional development is a key issue in using technology to improve learning in the classroom.
A lack of knowledge of technology is a key reason for the lack of its effective use in the classroom (Fatemi, 1999). Many teachers wish to use this new technology. Many know how to use a computer, but lack the depth of knowledge that will enable them to use it in its most effective manner. When it comes to gaining that knowledge, most teachers report that they lack the time, access, and support necessary to accomplish this task (Guhlin, 1996). Schools need to address these issues if they are to overcome the obstacle that hold them back from using technology to its greatest advantage.
The successful integration of technology into the standard classroom curriculum involves the development of a technology plan. In this plan, the school establishes its primary and secondary goals for the use of this technology. The first part of this plan involves the actual physical design of the technology to b used. Usually an outside consulting firm is used to assist in this function. Then a clearly defined protocol and plan must be developed in order to achieve the goals and the most effective use of this technology. In many cases physical education is simply left out of the plan, either by oversight, or the lack of sufficient budget to meet all of the needs of the school. In this case computers for physical education take a lower priority than computers for say, the math department. Staff training and orientation should be an integral part of the technology plan.
Training for teachers needs to encompass not only how to turn it on and use it, but should include how to effectively integrate it into the lesson plan, and how to use it to provide a variety of learning experiences. It also needs to include a discussion of application specific to each learning area or topic. The training needs to be hands-on and interactive so that the teachers leaves, not only with a general understanding of technology use, but gains the ability to go home and implement what they have learned. The training needs to offer the chance for continuing education and updates for the teacher to return and expand their knowledge or clear up any difficulties that they have encountered. This is obviously an area that has been lacking in the past, due to the lack of effective use of technology in the classroom.
Teachers need to be a part of the technology planning process and need to feel as if it they own a part of it and have had some input. They need to feel that it is not just another inconvenience that has been imposed up on them. They need to be able to express their needs and personal goals for use of technology in the classroom. In this way the system, can be better designed to meet the needs of the school in general. The overall goals of the school must be addressed, but teachers must be able to set personal goals for technology use in their individual classrooms that are in line with the overall goals of the school. This level of cooperation will afford better communication and cooperation between administration and teachers. This level of cooperation will be better for everyone involved especially the students.
Teachers need to be encouraged to participate in professional development concerning technology. Schools may offer incentive programs to encourage participation, especially for classes that have not traditionally been participants in technology application, such as physical education or art. The use of incentives must be used with caution. Group incentives would offer a more equitable distribution of resources. However, they are often not as effective as individual incentives. Individual incentives are not the answer either, as they may encourage competition and unfair distribution of knowledge and resources (Lockwood, 1999). The final requirement for the effective use of technology is a program that ensures continuous evaluation of both the needs and goals of the program, as well as the knowledge level of the staff. There must be a plan for regular review and revision of the plan.
There have been many studies that have attempted to assess the effectiveness of technology in the classroom for raising standards of student achievement (Glennan & Melmed, 1996; Hawkins, Panush, & Spielvogel, 1996; Newman, 1990; and Henriquez & Riconscente, 1998 among others)., For the most part, these studies concluded that the use of technology in the classroom improved student outcomes. However, these studies did not account for differences and skill levels in teachers, the ability levels of the students prior to the implementation of technology. They also did not note whether the role of the teacher changed after implementation of the technology.
These studies considered themselves to be conclusive, however, failed to account for many confounding variables that may have effected the outcome. For this reason they were ineffective at isolating the dependent variable (the use of technology in the classroom) and there results cannot be considered conclusive in a strict sense. The results do have an element of common sense in that we know that students learn in a variety of methods and that the computer can involve all of the senses.
Another element missing from these reports is how the computers were used in the classroom. It is not known if the latest interactive software was used, or if the computers were only used as glorified text. It is not known to what extent the media was used. Therefore differences in the ability of students to learn may be due to those who had better technology. Another variable that was not considered in these studies is the amount or level of instruction given to the students prior to their usage. Students that were not properly instructed in the use of this technology would be naturally expected to perform worse than those who had more instruction and had a grasp on the technology and fully understood its usage do.
Studies have concluded that computers do help to improve student outcomes in the classroom, but these studies failed to identify and account for many factors that may have effected the results. For this reason, it is suggested that the result be taken at face value until more controlled studies have been performed. Even in light of these conclusions, no one will argue that computers give teachers a great multi-media source and that these can be used to enhance an already excellent classroom program. They may be able to help bring substandard performance up to standard. The final thought to all of this is that technology alone is not the only factor in classroom success, and that a skilled teacher is the bottom line in class performance.
It would seem from the literature reviewed that when the idea of putting computers in the schools was first developed, schools jumped on the band wagon and put in computers. However, this was done without proper thought and planning. As a result the schools had computers, but did not know how to use them. Therefore they did little to enhance educational experiences for students. They have been utilized mostly in the math and physics departments. Very few have been implemented in the physical education and health departments of the schools, even though there is a great opportunity to enhance learning through their use in these areas as well.
How Computers Can Help Achieve National Standards for Physical Development and Health
As part of an attempt to standardize education and assure that students across the United States were at least getting some minimal requirements, the federal government adopted a set of National Standards for the development of various areas of curriculum across the United States. In addition many states adopted and added to these standards. The following will use the educational standards for the State of Illinois as an example to address the issue of how schools can use computers to help achieve the goals set forth in the state standard in Physical Education and Health (Illinois Department of Education, 1995). This standard is representative of many state standards and serves as a guideline by which to assess other programs.
The Illinois National Educational Standard for the Physical Education and health was created by compiling information from various sources including the National Guidelines, State Goals, and National Education Health Standards (Illinois Department of Education, 1995). Prior to the adoption of these standards, most physical education programs did little than provide a certain amount of physical exercise for students. They did little to develop an understanding of body mechanics, energy use and consumption during exercise, proper nutrition, or the health benefits of regular exercise. Now it is not only important for students to exercise, but it is necessary for them to develop a base of knowledge about their bodies as well.
The Illinois physical Education Standard encompasses Goals 19-24 if the State Educational Goals for students. We will examine each of these goals and how computers can help to achieve them.
State Goal 19 is to acquire movement skills and an understanding of concepts needed to engage in health enhancing physical activity (Illinois Department of Education, 1995, Goal 19).
Learning Standards Early High School Late High School
A. Demonstrate physical competency in individual and team sports, creative movement and leisure and work-related activities.
19.A.4 Perform skills efficiently in a variety of leisure activities, sports, creative movement and work-related activities.
19.A.5 Demonstrate knowledge and skills in a self-selected individual sport, a team sport, creative movement and work-related activities.
B. Analyze various movement concepts and applications.
19.B.4 Analyze various movement patterns for efficiency and effectiveness.
19.B.5 Apply the principles of efficient movement to evaluate personal performance.
C. Demonstrate knowledge of rules, safety and strategies during physical activity.
19.C.4a Develop rules and safety procedures for physical activities.
19.C.4b Select and apply offensive, defensive and cooperative strategies in selected activities, games and sports.
19.C.5a Select components (e.g., equipment, boundaries, number of players, rules) which promote participation in novel or original physical activities.
19.C.5b Analyze and apply complex offensive, defensive and cooperative strategies for selected games and sports.
Source: (Illinois Department of Education, 1995, Goal 19).
State goal 19 can be enhanced by the use of a computer through the many software programs and websites that explore the effective use of body mechanics. There are also many personal planner type programs that could be used to plan individual fitness goals and a plan to achieve them. They could help to track student progress and achievement. Many of these programs are used by professional athletes and could be an asset in the physical education arena as well.
State Goal 20 is to, “Achieve and maintain a health-enhancing level of physical fitness based upon continual self-assessment” (Illinois Department of Education, 1995, Goal 20).
Learning Standards Early High School Late High School
A. Know and apply the principles and components of health-related fitness.
20.A.4a Interpret the effects of exercise/physical activity on the level of health-related fitness.
20.A.4b Participate in various types of fitness training programs (e.g., circuit, cross and interval training) and describe the characteristics and benefits of each.
20.A.5 Implement an individualized health-related fitness plan which includes the principles of training.
B. Assess individual fitness levels.
20.B.4a Record and interpret health-related physiological data (e.g., blood pressure, body mass index, oxygen exchange), with and without the use of technology.
20.B.4b Prepare an individual health-related fitness profile and evaluate fitness level on each component.
20.B.5a Collect and interpret health-related fitness data over a period of time, with and without the use of technology.
20.B.5b Evaluate the effects of fitness choices and heredity on wellness.
C. Set goals based on fitness data and develop, implement and monitor an individual fitness improvement plan.
20.C.4a Set realistic, short-term, health-related fitness goals based on individual profiles.
20.C.4b Evaluate physical fitness services, products and advertising.
20.C.4c Design and implement a personal fitness program.
20.C.5a Set realistic, long-term, health-related fitness goals based on an individual profile.
20.C.5b Understand how aging, illness and injury affect physical activity.
20.C.5c Use profile data to monitor an individual wellness/fitness plan.
Source: (Illinois Department of Education, 1995, Goal 20).
This is the most necessary goal that is in need of computer intervention. Without the use of a computer to track the individual fitness plan, there will be hours of wasted time, filling out papers by hand. In part B, a computer is necessary and could benefit from the use of a spreadsheet program in which the data could be easily manipulated and standard statistical calculations performed. The Internet is valuable resource in obtaining section C. Of this standard. This is perhaps the most critical area of the use of a computer. Without it there is the potential for many hours of time wasted, that could be better doing activities that help to meet the goals.
State Goal 21 is to “Develop team-building skills by working with others through physical activity” (Illinois Department of Education, 1995, Goal 21).
Learning Standards Early High School Late High School
A. Demonstrate individual responsibility during group physical activities.
21.A.4a Demonstrate decision-making skills both independently and with others during physical activities.
21.A.4b Apply identified procedures and safe practices to all group physical activity settings.
21.A.4c Complete a given task on time.
21.A.5 Demonstrate individual responsibility through use of various team-building strategies in physical activity settings (e.g., etiquette, fair play, self-officiating, coaching, organizing a group activity).
B. Demonstrate cooperative skills during structured group physical activity.
21.B.4 Work cooperatively with others to achieve group goals in competitive and non-competitive situations (e.g., challenge course, orienteering).
21.B.5 Demonstrate when to lead and when to be supportive to accomplish group goals.
Source: (Illinois Department of Education, 1995, Goal 21).
This may be one area where a computer may not be of much use, except in keeping track of teams and team and individual goals. There is also a wealth of information on the Internet on what constitutes good leadership and good behavior by team members.
State Goal 22 is to, “Understand principles of health promotion and the prevention and treatment of illness and injury” (Illinois Department of Education, 1995, Goal 22).
Learning Standards Early High School Late High School
A. Explain the basic principles of health promotion, illness prevention and safety.
22.A.4a Compare and contrast communicable, chronic and degenerative illnesses (e.g., influenza, cancer, arthritis).
22.A.4b Analyze possible outcomes of effective health promotion and illness prevention (e.g., reduction in stress, improved fitness, lessened likelihood of injury and illness).
22.A.4c Demonstrate basic procedures in injury prevention and emergency care that can be used in the home, workplace, and community (e.g., first aid, CPR).
22.A.4d Research and report about a career involved in health promotion, health care and injury prevention.
22.A.5a Explain strategies for managing contagious, chronic and degenerative illnesses (e.g., various treatment and support systems).
22.A.5b Evaluate the effectiveness of health promotion and illness prevention methods using data from actual situations (e.g., impact of worksite health promotion programs).
22.A.5c Explain how health and safety problems have been altered by technology, media and medicine (e.g., product testing; control of polio; advanced surgical techniques; improved treatments for cancer, diabetes and heart disease; worksite safety management).
B. Describe and explain the factors that influence health among individuals, groups and communities.
22.B.4 Explain social and economic effects of health problems on individuals and society (e.g., cost of health care, reduction in productivity).
22.B.5 Analyze how public health policies, laws and the media function to prevent and control illness (e.g., product and food labeling, food safety and handling, school immunizations).
C. Explain how the environment can affect health.
22.C.4 Analyze how environmental conditions can affect health on a large scale (e.g., acid rain, oil spills, solid waste contamination, nuclear leaks, ozone depletion).
22.C.5 Compare and contrast how individuals, communities and states prevent and correct health-threatening environmental problems (e.g., recycling, banning leaf burning, restaurant inspections, OSHA standards in the workplace).
Source: (Illinois Department of Education, 1995, Goal 22).
State Goal 23 is to, “Understand human body systems and factors that influence growth and development” (Illinois Department of Education, 1995, Goal 23).
Learning Standards Early High School Late High School
A. Describe and explain the structure and functions of the human body systems and how they interrelate.
23.A.4 Explain how body system functions can be maintained and improved (e.g., exercise, nutrition, safety).
B. Explain the effects of health-related actions on the body systems.
23.B.4 Explain immediate and long-term effects of health habits on the body systems (e.g., diet/heart disease, exercise/fat reduction, stress management/emotional health).
23.B.5 Understand the effects of healthy living on individuals and their future generations (e.g., not using alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs during pregnancy).
C. Describe factors that affect growth and development.
23.C.4 Describe changes in physical health and body functions at various stages of the life cycle.
23.C.5 Explain how the aging process affects body systems (e.g., vision, hearing, immune system).
Source: (Illinois Department of Education, 1995, Goal 23).
State Goal 24 is to “Promote and enhance health and well-being through the use of effective communication and decision-making skills” (Illinois Department of Education, 1995, Goal 24).
Learning Standards Early High School Late High School
A. Demonstrate procedures for communicating in positive ways, resolving differences and preventing conflict.
24.A.4a Describe the effects (e.g., economic losses, threats to personal safety) of conflict and violence upon the health of individuals, families and communities.
24.A.4b Formulate strategies to prevent conflict and resolve differences.
24.A.5 Compare and contrast strategies to prevent conflict and resolve differences.
B. Apply decision-making skills related to the protection and promotion of individual health.
24.B.4 Explain how decision making affects the achievement of individual health goals.
24.B.5 Explain immediate and long-term impacts of health decisions to the individual, family and community.
C. Demonstrate skills essential to enhancing health and avoiding dangerous situations.
24.C.4 Formulate a plan to achieve individual health goals.
24.C.5 Evaluate progress toward the attainment of a health goal.
Source:(Illinois Department of Education, 1995, Goal 24).
Goals 22, 23, and 24 are considered together as far as the usefulness of computers is concerned. In the achievement of all of these goals, schools need to make use of the many forms of interactive learning media available. There are a wealth of resources available that make learning these topics interesting and that involve many animations, simulations, and sounds to explain these concepts. These resources are designed to keep the students attention focused and let them play an interactive role in the learning process.
It should be obvious that in helping the schools achieve state goals, a computer is not only a luxury for the physical education department, it is a necessity. Physical Education now involves more than just physical activity, it involves learning and grasping many new concepts as well. One of the main reasons why the use is computers in physical Education is downplayed is that many still consider physical education much like structured recess. Now the face of physical education has changed and the teaching methods must change as well. As has been demonstrated, the computer can help accomplish all of the goals included in the Illinois State Goals, and the goals of many other states as well.
Current Software for Physical Education
The following software was found through an Internet search for software in a physical education setting. It is a compilation of many sources and represents an overview of the software currently available. Multiple versions of the same software were not listed, as this is not a comprehensive list, only an overview. Standard sports software and games were also not considered as these are not expected to have the educational value in the physical education classroom. These are mainly for entertainment purposes.
Physical Education Software
Sport Schedulated: Team Scheduler to help create league schedules for an unlimited number of teams very quickly and efficiently. Create double and single elimination tournament, round-robin or season, and practice schedules for any sport that requires pairings.
Exercise & Nutrition Journal lets you input data about what you eat, how you exercise, your weight, water consumption, and irregularities in diet. You can then create a form to see how you varied over a week, month, or year. Soon you will also be able to create a comparative graph. It has encryption, and multiple users including the ability to create new users.
Heart Calc License application for use with a personal heart rate monitor. You simply enter your maximum and resting heart rates and the percentage limits of exercise in which you wish to train and by clicking the Calculate button, produce the limits at which you should set your HRM.
Athletic Injury Management (AIM) Plus Unknown
Macintosh (there are also Windows versions available)
Complete Physical Education Plans for Grades 7-12 Book
Unknown, It is not known if these plan meet state or national standards.
Windows and Macintosh
Cramer Athletic Training Action
Cramer Athletic Training: Concepts and Skills Software
Cramer’s P.E. Fit-N-Dex Software
Windows and Macintosh
As one can see there is software available that would help to achieve the State and National Physical Fitness and Health Goals. The prices may be prohibitive in some cases. However in some cases they are free. One thing is obvious, however, there is still a lot of room for entrepreneurial type software developers to develop packages tailored specifically to the physical education department. There is an overload of software for the math, physics and other department, but there is relatively little for the physical education department. The potential is there, however there is still little available.
One reason for this may be the existence of a never-ending loop. Physical Education departments search for software to help them and find little to meet their needs. They lose interest and give up. The software development companies do not see a demand or interest and therefore do not put time and effort into the development. This leads to a viscous circle and the ones who suffer are the students. There is a definite niche where computers and physical education should be combined to meet the state Physical Education Goals, but these resources are currently being underutilized.
Professional athletes use computers in a number of ways similar to the proposed applications being considered for school use. Physical education classes could take an example on the marriage between computers and athletics. Professional athletes use computers to analyze body mechanics, stick to training schedules, manage nutrition, training methods and schedules and for a variety of other functions. Computers help them to take care of the mundane tasks so that they can spend their time engaging in more useful activities. This is the same function that computers could do for the Physical Education classroom.
This study will attempt to prove or disprove the hypothesis that computer technology is an underutilized resource by High School Physical Education teachers. The null hypothesis will state the level of computer technology by High School physical Education teachers is state of the art and no improvements need to be made. This will be accomplished through the statistical analysis of a set of survey questions administered to High School Physical Education teachers in my state of residence.
In addition to proving or disproving the hypothesis, there are several research questions that this study hopes to answer. The first is in relation to the thesis and will approach the topic of computer usage in the physical education setting from several angles. The first will be to determine the number of computers in use in the physical education department. The second will be to determine how these computers are being used. The third aspect will be if the computers are being used by the students and in what manner. The results of this research will be used to devise a set of guidelines for achieving greater usage of computers in physical education classrooms.
The sample population will consist of 150 High School Physical Education teachers located in school districts within my state of residence. This sample population will consist of both males and females from a variety of demographic situations. Demographic questions will be used to determine the applicability of the final results of the survey. For instance there may be difference between males and females regarding general computer attitudes. Results such as these may effect the results and these factors must be identifies in the population. Keeping the sample population within one state eliminates several variables such as the amount of support that a state gives schools for use in acquiring technology and training. In addition it eliminates the variable caused by differences in requirements of the state education goals and plans. These factors many effect the usage of computer technology in schools. The demographic of the school will also effect the results. This factor will be analyzed by use of a question regarding the size of the school an average estimated annual income of student’s parents. It would be expected that computer usage would be more prevalent in more wealth districts than in poorer ones.
High school physical education teachers were chosen for this study as this is the age group where most students are being exposed to computers in other areas of study. The high school level contains more educational goals that are knowledge based. Earlier goals such as on the elementary level are more directed towards the attainment of physical goals. The high school level stresses knowledge and it is for these topics that the computer will prove to be the most useful.
There are many differences in background, skills and knowledge levels that may effect the results obtained in this study. The survey will be used in an attempt to identify these factors and determine if they have had a statistically significant effect on the results. If they are found to have an effect these findings will be discussed as well as any implications that they may have as far as the applicability of the survey results. It is hoped that the sample population will contain a relatively even spread of demographics. However, it can be realistically expected that there will be more male respondents than female respondents due to the fact that physical education is a traditionally male stereotypical profession.
The survey instrument will consist of 100 questions covering the four research topics. Demographic information will be included in these numbers of questions. As the research progresses, more survey questions may have to be added in light of further research into the topic. There will be an attempt to keep the survey short enough that people will not answer due to time constraints or other such reasons. However there are a large number of areas to be covered and these must be adequately covered in order to effectively answer the research questions.
The questions will be in a simply yes and no format for the most part to allow for easy data analysis. Section one will consist of demographic questions in the form of multiple choice answers. It will also ask general questions that will attempt to determine the current level of computer use in the physical education department for that school district. A sample question from this section might be,” What activities does your physical education department use its computer for the most? Grade tracking Team and tournament design Enhanced education media, such as simulations and CDs.” Answers will be indicated by circling the appropriate choice.
Section two will answer questions regarding the level of computer knowledge of the physical education teacher. The questions will be similar in structure to section I and will be in multiple choice format. An example might be, “How many hours do you spend outside work using a computer? Four or More per night Several hours a Week Several Hours a Month Never.” Likert scales may be devised for some questions in this section where appropriate.
Section three will determine any barriers to the implementation or greater level of usage of computers by the physical education department. The majority of these questions will be multiple choice. However for some of these questions, open ended answers will be used. The results will be coded and analyzed for frequency. The reason for this is that a multiple choice answer in this situation may not identify many factors that will effect the sample results. If is the goal of the research to identify any factors that might hinder the better use of technology, open ended question may be used. For example, “What is the greatest obstacle in obtaining a computer system for use by the physical education department?”
In this case a multiple choice answer may be useful. However the researcher is not currently an experienced physical education professional and there may be factors that are not identified by the survey. These missing answers may tend to skew and influence the results obtained. These answers will be divided into categories as become apparent by the survey results and will be analyzed by frequency distribution across various demographic categories.
Section four will attempt to determine the general attitudes of physical education teachers in respect to the usefulness and willingness to use computers in the physical education setting. The survey questions will again be of the multiple choice type. An example might be, “Do you feel that a computer would be helpful in conveying class material to student? Yes
Maybe No.” Again, in some cases a Likert scale may be used for these questions.
The survey is complex and uses a variety of methods to accomplish its primary research objectives. The complexity will make data analysis a bit more complicated a much thought will have of go into this in the final survey design. The research questions are varied and require a different type of data, or multiple types of data in some cases in order to provide meaningful answers to the research questions.
The organization of the survey is appropriate for the research to be answered. The sections correlate to the research questions and the data types being collected are appropriate as well. It is unfortunate that one type of data will not be appropriate in this survey for matters of simplicity. The survey intends to be thorough and must be, in order to provide valid answers to the research questions. It is believed that in this case, the survey and technique are not overly complex and are only complex enough to provide the level of information necessary to answer the research questions and make recommendations.
Data Analysis and Interpretation
It would seem from the description of the survey that data analysis would be took complex to obtain meaningful results. However this is not the case. The data from both multiple choice and Likert scale can be analyzed using the same statistical techniques. Open ended questions can also be analyzed in a similar fashion if they are first coded into categories then analyzed according to the number of answers in each category. An example of such coding might be as follows:
For example, Question 17. What is the main factor preventing your school district from purchasing more computers for the physical education department?
The answers obtained may be summarized as follows:
Finding issues 15
Space allocation difficulties 44
Lack of interest by phys ed teacher 27
Lack of interest by administration 40
Lack of training by physical education staff 67
Lack of useful software available 15
No one ever thought of it 5
By using this method open ended answers can be analyzed using similar descriptive techniques to the other multiple choice answers. Frequency distribution will give the best visual account of all questions types, including Likert scale, multiple choice, and coded open ended questions.
Descriptive techniques will be used for all data including mean, median, mode, standard deviation, etc. A p-value of <.05 will be used as a criterion for statistical significance among sample results. Z-test will be used to check for differences across demographic groups that may have influences sample results. The data will be presented in summary format using visual methods such as graphs, pie charts and tables to make the information more meaningful to the reader.
Data analysis will be performed using an Excel Spreadsheet. Data will be hand entered using and many of the tools included in the software package will be used. PowerPoint will e used to create the final presentation. The data analysis will for this survey will be complex and will require the use of a spreadsheet program to keep it organized and to obtain meaningful results.
Assumptions and Limitations of Study
This research is based on several underlying assumptions. The first assumption is that the physical education teachers will be able to read the survey without difficulty. The second is that they know what a computer is. The third assumption is that they will answer the questions in an honest manner and in an way that expresses their true thoughts and feelings. In order to assure that the third assumption holds true a master list of High Schools to which the surveys were sent will be kept. The name of the person will not be known to either party. It will only be asked that the survey be filled out by a member of the physical education teaching staff. Demographic information will e collected for statistical purposes, but no personal information will be used. Only one will be mailed per school and the school will be identified by number only on the survey form.
This research may be subject to several limitations. The first is that the survey will be lengthy and this may limit the number of total respondents. If this becomes and issue, an incentive may be offered, such as a restaurant certificate to encourage response. It may be necessary that in order to fully address the research questions this survey may become quite lengthy. An effort will be made to reduce unnecessary redundancy and keep its length to a minimum. Even though the survey is lengthy, it is not expected to take over one half hour to complete, due to the speed with which multiple choice questions can be answered.
There may be differences in demographics that effect the results in certain sections. For instance, it may be reasonable that questions concerning computer experience will reflect that males have more computer experience than women do. They may also reflect a greater level of interest in computers than women may. In order to eliminate as many of these variables as possible, cross tabulation using demographics will be performed. Any question that reveals a statistically significant difference according to demographics will be accounted for in the results and findings section. In cases where this occurs, it may mean that results, or perhaps result for that particular question are only applicable under certain demographic circumstances.
As only physical education teachers from a certain state are being considered for this study, the result may not be applicable to a wider population such as all of the physical education teachers in the United States. This was done to eliminate two important confounding variables. However it will effect the applicability of the survey. A decision was made that the elimination of the confounding variables was more important than having a greater scope of applicability.
Though there are some limitations to this study, they are not expected to affect the ability to draw conclusions concerning proof of the hypothesis or in the ability to answer the research questions. They will have to be considered when performing the final assessment of the research in order to determine what effect, if any, they have had. These issues will have to be addressed in the results and conclusions section of the final dissertation.
As a result of preliminary research into the subject and the lack of empirical evidence to the contrary of the hypothesis, it is expected that the results of this study will support the hypothesis. It is expected that the null hypothesis will be rejected and that the results will statistically support the hypothesis that computer technology is an underutilized resource by High School Physical Education teachers.
The answers to the research questions are expected to reveal that the number of computers in the physical education are inadequate to effectively utilize them as a student resource. The research will show that there are a variety of obstacles to the implementation and greater utilization of computers by physical education departments. The level of computer knowledge by physical education personnel is expected to be low and inadequate to understand and effectively use computers in the classroom. This is expected to reflect the general state of technology knowledge and use by physical education departments.
The attitudes of physical education teachers regarding the use of technology in the classroom is expected to be poor. This is expected to be due to a lack of knowledge about the potential that computer hold for this area, a lack of knowledge of computers in general, and a lack of exposure to products available in this field. It is expected that mixed results will be obtained regarding the willingness of staff to accept and plan to use more computers in their department as an integral part of the classroom setting. This mixed reaction is expected to be due to difference in level of computer knowledge and the perceived attitudes of administrative personnel towards the idea.
The results of this study will serve to identify the current state of computer usage and knowledge in the physical education classroom. It will be useful in devising a set of guidelines to promote the greater usage and more effective usage of computers in the physical education classroom. These guidelines are expected to serve as an inspiration for school systems in implementing a comprehensive computer program in their physical education department. Results may vary for individual school districts and these recommendations will serve as an example only, from which to draw ideas.
One of the key areas that came out in the preliminary research was the surprising lack of software available for physical education purposes. This is serious issue that needs addressed before computers become a major addition to the physical education curriculum. There are many possibilities for developers. They could design packages that give multi-media, presentations on topics that correspond to that of a textbook. They could integrate self paced quizzes and tests to achieve mastery of a topic before moving on to the next. They could make it interesting and use sound to involve more of the senses. These could be designed to accomplish the state goals set for physical education standards. Topic might include a simulated heart showing the effects of excretes and the effects of disease. They could include self-evaluation tests to assess personal diet and teach about nutrition. There are an endless number of possibilities and it is unknown why they are not being used to their full advantage.
It is unlikely that even if an interest exists in using more computer resources in physical education department, until the resources are available, the current state is not likely to change. Schools need more money to buy computers. Training staff takes time, money and dedication from staff members. There is some software available for this area, but in general it is too expensive and is not comprehensive in nature. These issues need to be resolved before more computers come into use in physical education departments.
A plan needs to be developed to address these issues. It is the hope of the research team that this results of this study will prove valuable to this end. The key issues will be identified and possible solutions explored. Much of the preliminary research for this project involved using research on computer usage as it applied to math or physics. Many of the same principles still apply to physical education as far as that goes, but the most surprising issue was the lack of information and products available for use by the physical education department. It is as if the topic has been ignored altogether.
It is easy to see why this situation exists. The role of the physical education teacher has been changing over time. They are taking on more responsibilities of a traditional classroom teacher. This is a deviation from their traditional role as primarily a “coach.’ The role of the physical education teacher has evolved to one requiring a greater depth of knowledge, but the state of the art and resources available to them still reflects their role as primarily a coach.
This attitude will have an effect on the professional development of a physical education teacher who wishes to give more to their students in terms of comprehensive, quality education. They will be discouraged by the lack of resources available. Administrators and other personnel come to a realization about the changing role of the physical education teacher. They must encourage their professional development and five them more tools to impart their knowledge. It will become increasingly more difficult of convey a greater amount of knowledge with the same lack of tools that currently exists. The ones who will suffer are the students.
There are many possibilities for breaking new ground in the field of physical education. Computers could help to accomplish these goals in an effect way. Multi-media leaves a lasting impression on young minds. Students learn better when more senses are involved. However, until this dream is realized, the changing role of the physical education teacher must be realized.
Without the tools, their teaching methods are stuck in the dark ages and they cannot make progress.
The state governments are placing an increasing responsibility and load on physical education teachers as far as the depth of knowledge that they are required to teach. As was previously illustrated, State Goals 19-24 of the Illinois National Educational Standards encompassed detailed knowledge about nutrition, body mechanics, physiology, and relatively new information such as the effects of exercise on the body. As we gain more knowledge in the area of physical training, nutrition, and other areas, it is inevitable that states will include this knowledge into the standard curriculum as well. It will become increasingly difficult to keep up with the level of education needed given the current state of the art in physical education.
This study addresses a serious topic that has been virtually ignored in the past. It is imperative that solutions be found to these dilemmas in order to prevent harm to education of our youth. Increasing demands will require state of the art technology in order to keep up. The implementation of this technology requires a paradigm shift in attitudes towards the definition of roles of physical education teachers. The results of this research will shed some light on these topics and will serve as the first step to finding solutions to these growing problems in education.
Receive completed surveys
Follow-up calls to persons who did not return survey and attempt to get data by phone
Tabulation of results and statistical analysis
Complete rough draft of final Report
Edit and complete Final Dissertation
Darling-Hammond, L. & Berry, B. (1998, May 27). “Investing in teaching.” Education Week on the Web [Online]. Available: http://www.edweek.org/ew/vol-17/37darlin.h17
Fatemi, E. (1999, September 23).”Building the digital curriculum: Summary. Available: http://www.edweek.org/sreports/tc99/articles/summary.htmL. Ast Accessed December 13, 2002.
Glennan, Thomas A. And Arthur Melmed (1996) Fostering the Use of Educational Technology: Elements of a National Strategy. Washington, DC: RAND Corporation.
Gold, R.S. (1991). “Microcomputer applications in health education.” Dubuque, IA: William C. Brown Publishers.
Guhlin, M. (1996). “Stage a well designed Saturday session and they will come!” Technology Connection, (3)3: 13-14.
Hawkins, J., E.M. Panush, & R. Spielvogel. (1996). “National study tour of district technology integration (Summary report).” New York: Center for Children and Technology, Education Development Center.
Henriquez, A., & Riconscente, M. (1998, July). “Rhode Island teachers and technology initiative: Findings from the pilot implementation year.” New York: Center for Children and Technology, Education Development Center.
Illinois Department of Education.(1995) “Illinois Learning Standards for Physical Development and Health.” State of Illinois Department of Education.
Lockwood, A.T. (1999). “The promise and potential of professional development.” Unpublished manuscript. North Central Regional Educational Library.
McLean, Daniel D. (1996) “Use of Computer-based Technology in Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance.” ERIC Digest. ERIC Identifier: ED390874. Publication Date: 1996-02-00
McLean, D.D., & Hill, J.M. (1993). “Supporting internship preparation: A case study in computer-based support. Schole:” A Journal of Leisure Studies and Recreation Education, (8): 37-49.
Mohnsen, B.S. (1995). “Using technology in physical education.” Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Unpublished.
Newman, D. (1990). “Technology’s role in restructuring for collaborative learning (CTE Technical Report #8).” New York: Center for Children and Technology, Education Development Center.
Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?
- Plagiarism free papers
- Timely delivery
- Any deadline
- Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
- Subject-relevant academic writer
- Adherence to paper instructions
- Ability to tackle bulk assignments
- Reasonable prices
- 24/7 Customer Support
- Get superb grades consistently
Online Academic Help With Different Subjects
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
What discipline/subjects do you deal in?
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
What if I don’t like the paper?
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
- When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
- We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.
In the event that you don’t like your paper:
- The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
- We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
- Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.
Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
What if the paper is plagiarized?
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
When will I get my paper?
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
Will anyone find out that I used your services?
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
How our Assignment Help Service Works
1. Place an order
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2. Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3. Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4. Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!