Physical Fitness in Children
The effects of a 2-minute jog 3 times per week on 20 meter shuttle run scores in elementary age students
The connection between physical activity, proper diet and nutrition, and a growing trend towards children who are overweight is well established. Obesity in children leads to the development of diseases that were once thought to only affect adults. When diseases such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease began in childhood it is often a precursor to the continuation and worsening of these diseases as an adult. Schools can play an important role in preventing or stopping the progress of lifelong illness by providing an atmosphere that promotes physical well-being and that teaches and instills the basics of a healthy lifestyle. At present, research as to what is the best approach remains controversial. The proposed research will explore the effects of one intervention technique in its ability to improve physical fitness scores among elementary students.
Physical activities in the schools are designed to reinforce patterns associated with a healthy lifestyle. Several factors are recognized as necessary in regards to policies that promote increased physical activity among students. These factors include daily physical activity and physical education, extracurricular physical activity programs, proper training of activity leaders, active transportation to and from school, adequate facilities to house the program, and community outreach (Lagarde & LeBlanc, 2010). Studies in areas unrelated to physical fitness have found that increasing the available options increases consumption and participation. For instance, increasing food choices led to increases in food consumption. Increasing the number purchasing options increases purchases in adults. It was found that altering the variety of exercise options increased exercise participation as well. (Barkley, Ryan, & Bellar et al.). The ability to provide all of these essential elements has been a popular topic among academic researchers.
Research in the area of physical fitness among youth contains several basic tenets that are widely accepted and supported by numerous research studies. It is an established tenant that obesity among children is on the rise. Obesity among children is accepted as a precursor to adult lifestyle patterns that can lead to disability or a shortened life span. Obesity among children is a drain on an already taxed medical system and costs the American public billions of dollars to care for these children. These expenses are further multiplied when one considers the expenses that they will incur as adults due to illnesses that could have been prevented. It is recognized that lifestyle changes that include a healthy diet and physical activity play a key role in preventing the development of diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and the complications of these diseases. The goal of current research efforts is to discover the best means to promote health and physical fitness among school age children so that they can lead a healthy, happy, and productive life.
Summary of Literature
Research on the problem of obesity in children has been well funded by academic community, private organizations, and the government. It is recognized that this is a high priority research topic with significant consequences for the future of the nation. Research in this area has progressed from the general knowledge that a problem exists and the consequences associated with childhood obesity to specific ways to address the issue. At present, research focuses on specific methods and interventions that will have the greatest impact on preventing childhood obesity and diminished physical fitness. This research will add to the body of knowledge in this area.
The 20 meter shuttle run to be used in this study is part of the Presidential Physical Fitness Test. National figures on pass and failure rates for this test could not be located, but it is estimated that due to the high percentage of obese children in the United States, the numbers of those that could not pass the test are high. This research will address the problem of whether adding a 2-minute jog, three times a week to the physical fitness program of elementary children will increase their performance on 20 meter shuttle run scores as a means of measuring physical fitness.
Literature on childhood obesity and physical fitness is abundant. Primary sources of information include government reports, clinical trials, and academic journals. These sources agree on the severity of the problem and the need to find solutions. Sources agree on the effects of obesity in children, but they do not agree on what represents the best solution to the problem. Furthermore, sources do not agree on what represents the most accurate measurement method for establishing levels of physical fitness in children and adolescents. This literature review will examine academic studies that related to interventions associated with increased physical fitness, as well as topics specific to this academic study
Physical Fitness and Bone Density
In the past, children and adolescents were treated the same as adults in terms of exercise and physical fitness regimes. We now know that the growing bodies of children and adolescents are different and that they require different treatment at different stages in their growth. Medical evidence suggests that physical activity increases bone density. It is not known if increased bone density in children prevents the development of osteoporosis in later life, but it is known that it prevents the development of osteoporosis in children. Increased bone density sets children up for an active and healthy lifestyle.
Osteoporosis was once thought to only be a disease of old age, but it is being increasingly accepted that osteoporosis is also a pediatric issue. Physical activity promotes the development of strong bones and it is been found that it is not necessary to perform high amounts of exercise, to obtain the maximum bone density. Activity should be continued through the entirety of the pre-pubertal growth years (Vicente-Rodriguez, 2006).
Resistance training has found to be effective for increasing bone development in children. However, the impact of age and maturity on trainability of muscle strength remains poorly understood. It was found that the ability to gain muscular strength increases with age and maturational status, but that it does not exhibit a boost during puberty. The duration and number of performed sets were found to have an affect on the outcome of the training (Behringer, Vom Heede, & Yue et al., 2010). Prepubescent children receive the most benefit from daily physical activity and physical loading from activities such as jump rope and strength training. Increases in bone density among children who were involved in these activities demonstrated no gender-based differences (Meyer, Romann, & Zahner et al., 2011).
Oxygen consumption rate is one of the oldest measures of cardiorespiratory fitness and performance. Low anaerobic performance is often associated with a sedentary lifestyle, which is associated with the development of obesity and the development of Type 2 diabetes. Methods for teaching students to monitor their own oxygen consumption rate were met with positive results (Tarnus, Catan, & Verkindt, 2011).
Gender differences were found to be a factor in anaerobic endurance. Men achieved significantly higher performance indices on anaerobic endurance tests than women. These differences were attributed to lower muscle mass in women. All of the subjects in this test were untrained. The test took place over multiple trials. The differences became more pronounced in each successive trial (Sienkiewicz-Dianzenza, Tomaszewski, & Iwa-skaet al.,2009).
In addition to gender differences, physical illness or specific disabilities can also have a negative affect on anaerobic endurance. In a progressive respiratory test on children with cerebral palsy it was found that they experienced significantly lower aerobic capacity than normally developing children in the same age category (Verschuren & Takken, 2010).
Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) affects a children’s coordination and ability to participate in activities (Rivilis, Hay, & Cariney et al., 2011). Physical activities are essential for the proper development of fitness and overall health. In the course of daily activity Most children engage in running, walking, jumping and other physical activities. However, when children find these activities challenging due to a disability, negative associations between body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, endurance, anaerobic capacity, power, and overall physical activity were found (Rivilis, Hay, & Cariney et al., 2011). In addition, the study found that it was more difficult to measure fitness levels in children who suffered from DCD as they were not able to perform the motor functions necessary for the test.
Development and Physical Fitness
The physical fitness needs of children are not the same as those of adults. Growth and development significantly affects the results of physical fitness activities. Factors such as growth hormones and other factors work together to increase bone size and muscle size. Cardio respiratory endurance is defined as the ability of the body to sustain a rhythmic exercise for an extended period of time. This is also referred to as aerobic capacity. Aerobic capacity is directly related to the efficiency of the respiratory and cardiopulmonary systems (Fisher, 2009). Fitness levels among children are generally lower than those of adults, but when the size of their body is taken into account the results are to nearly the same (Fisher, 2009).
The results of studies on aerobic capacity and fitness in children and adolescents suggest that physical fitness needs to be placed in the lower priority than developing healthy exercise habits that will continue into an adult. As children grow they will gain size and strength. Children were found to be able to increase muscular strength in response to resistance training and these responses were found to be similar to that found in adults (Fisher, 2009).
Measures of short boost fitness, including the Wingate bike test and 40-50 meter sprints demonstrated that children exhibit lower scores in short burst of this than adults. This phenomenon is not completely understood, but it is suspected to be associated with limited utilization of the anaerobic glycolytic energy pathway, shorter limb length, smaller muscle mass, and a system of neurological communication that is less efficient than those of adults (Fisher, 2009). As children grow, short burst fitness scores tend to increase. When interpreting physical fitness scores for children and adolescents it is important to take into consideration growth factors. The studies demonstrate that children are not mini adults when it comes to fitness.
Temperature regulation is another factor that affects children more than adults during exercise. In adults, increased blood flow carries excess heat to the surface of the skin where it can be dissipated into the environment. Sweating is another mechanism that adults use to dissipate heat during exercise. Children generate more internal heat and produce less sweat than adults. This means that body temperature must be monitored (Fisher, 2009). The most significant finding of this study was that exercise activities need to be age appropriate for the child and they cannot be held to adults standards.
In an evaluation of an eight-week health and fitness program for fifth and sixth graders children who followed a program that included additional physical fitness outside of the standard program offered by the school, it was found that children improved their dietary habits and fitness levels in only three extra hours a week using a combined physical activity and nutritional program (Derri, Aggeloussis, & Petraki, 2004).
Bergeron (2007) explored the question of whether participating in school-based physical activities is enough to help improve the overall fitness of youth. One of the key concerns about youth who are involved in sports activities is the potential for acute and overuse injuries. However, with careful care, monitoring, and education, these injuries can be avoided. Those that participate in sports were found to demonstrate favorable changes in fat free mass. The study furthermore found that participation in sports that required impact-loading and running experienced greater whole-body and bone mineral content and density.
It was found that participants in group sports often did not result in constant physical activity, particularly in the early stages a learning the sport. In the early stages, emphasis is placed on form and learning correct body mechanics. Group sports often involve long periods of standing and waiting around. This can be compounded when the facilities have limited space and resources. As a result, many children do not achieve the level of activity necessary to improve their fitness by participation in group sports (Bergeron, 2007). The results of this study indicate that participation in group sports should be complemented by other activities.
Overuse injuries are the most common safety issues associated with pediatric and adolescent athletics. Over training in children leads to burnout and does not promote lifelong patterns of health and fitness. Parental pressure to compete and succeed was thought to be a factor (Brenner, 2007). Overuse injuries are a key concern in the development of physical fitness programs for children. More studies you to be conducted in this area of research.
Measurement and Intervention
The literature review revealed that what constitutes the best measurement methods for determining proper physical fitness levels of children is controversial. There are many methods available, few of which produce consistent results. In terms of measuring anaerobic endurance, those that involve prolonged, or short burst intensity activities such as running were found to be the most consistent in distinguishing levels of physical fitness. The following summarizes some of the most recent findings in this area.
Measuring fitness levels in high school students is important to make sure that they a retaining the proper level of physical fitness. However, developing a test that is equitable in that yields meaningful results who is difficult. Rowe, Mars, & Schuldeheisz, (2004) conducted a study to evaluate and validate the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT). The results of the study found that this test was able to accurately discriminate between sedentary behaviors, and moderate to vigorous levels of physical activity. The study indicated that this tool is a valuable resource for teachers and researchers in the measurement of physical activity.
The National Association for Sports and Physical Education (NASPE) has guidelines that recommend 120 minutes of physical activity for preschoolers per day. However, several issues have arisen in regards to estimates in the prevalence rates of inactive preschoolers. The first problem is that the guidelines of the NASPE have been interpreted in many different ways. The second difficulty is that accelerometry is considered to be the most widely accepted method for measuring the physical activity level of preschoolers. Despite it’s acceptance as the standard in measurement, it has been found to provide widely varied estimates a physical activity. It has been recommended that the NASPE guidelines be updated to reflect measurement methods that are more consistent (Beets, Bornstein, & Dowda, et al., 2011). Studies at address specific interventions were often combined with the goal of refining measurement techniques as well.
Plyometric training (plyo-play), was found to increase physical fitness performance in children. The study consisted of two groups, one of which received the standard physical education format, the other received the standard physical education format combined with a plyo-play program specifically designed for the children’s age group. Those that participated in the plyo-play program exhibit in increased levels of physical fitness over the study period (Fagenbaum, Farrel, & Radner et al., 2009). This study represents one of many studies in academic literature that examine a specific intervention and its effects on increased physical fitness. The proposed research will add to the existing body of research in this area.
This research will address the problem of whether adding a 2-minute jog, three times a week to the physical fitness program of elementary children will increase their performance on 20 meter shuttle run scores as a means of measuring physical fitness. This study will be a qualitative empirical study. A group of elementary students will be chosen and divided into two groups. Both groups will receive the standard physical education program of the school district’s elected. One group will receive an additional 2-minute jog three times a week. A baseline score for each 20 m shuttle run test will be derived before the treatment is begun. The scores will be compared to 20 m shuttle run test scores at the end of the test period.
Data collected for this study will consist of the baseline and post treatment 20 minute shuttle run scores. This will serve as a primary research data. In addition to the primary data information about the child’s gender, height, and weight will also be collected to provide greater insight into the data and to help detect the presence of sample bias in the population.
The treatment will consist of jogging for 2 minutes on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays. The jogging will take place around the perimeter of the school gymnasium. This will help to eliminate variables associated with varying weather conditions that may occur outside and could affect the quality of the jogging activity. Students will be instructed not to cut corners and to continue jogging at a moderate pace of approximately 120 steps per minute. The coach or instructor will ensure that the proper steps per minute are being maintained and will provide verbal prompts to encourage proper pace. It is possible that some students may have to walk after a certain time because their physical fitness level does not allow them to jog for the entire time. It is expected that as the students continue, their endurance will build. The coach or instructor will be asked to note students that are not able to complete the entire 2-minute jog at the beginning of the research study.
This study procedures will consist of gathering initial data prior to the treatment condition. Permission to participate in the study will be sent home to parents. Data will only be collected on children whose parents agree for them to participate in the study. Data on the students’ gender, height and weight will be gathered at the beginning of the study. An initial 20m shuttle run test will be administered and recorded. The students will then be divided into two groups by random assignment using a drawing. Those selected for group A will be considered the test group. They will receive the standard physical education program administered by the school and they will receive an additional 2-minute jog on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays for a period of six weeks. Group B. will only receive the standard physical education program administered by the school. At the end of the study, both groups will take the 20m shuttle run test. In addition, their height and weight will be recorded again as well. Once the second set of data is collected, the data will be analyzed by the researcher.
The sample population for this study will consist of all students in the fifth and sixth grades of a local school district. The sample size will be determined by the number of students in attendance in the classes selected. It is expected that a minimal population of 100 students will participate in the study. The gender of the study population will be random, in accordance with that of the natural classroom setting. Gender differences will be addressed via statistical methods. The age of the students will be from 10-12 years old. The ethnicity and socioeconomic background of the students will not be addressed as part of the study, as this information is not considered pertinent.
The key research instrument for this study consists of demographic data, which will be recorded in a tabular form. The 20m shuttle run test has been a part of standardized physical fitness testing for many years. It is considered a valid and reliable measure physical fitness for children and adults in many demographic groups (Leger & Gadbury, 1989; Leger, Mercier, & Gadbury et al., 1988; Strickland, Petersen, & Bouffard, 2003).
Data will be analyzed using descriptive statistical techniques to describe patterns and trends in the groups. Cross tabulation of genders will be used to explore the differences associated with gender. A p-value of 0.05 will be used for the acceptance of the hypothesis. The t-test will be used for independent samples. The data will be presented in graphically and in tabular form in the final report.
Send out Permission for the study to parents
December 1, 2011
Deadline to receive permission from parents to participate
December 15, 2011
Collect Initial Data
January 16, 2012
Begin 5-week 2-minute jog program
February 17, 2012
Conduct Second 20 m shuttle run, collect second set of height and weight
February 20, 2012
April 1, 2012
Write and Edit Final Report
June 1, 2012
This study has potential implications for the design of physical education programs that are more effective in promoting the general health and physical fitness of children. It will explore the potential that even small amounts of additional activity can have an affect on increasing physical fitness levels. This study will target fifth and sixth graders, but it will lead to further research on the effects of small amounts of exercise on other demographic groups as well. One of the key gaps in the literature is that no one knows for certain how much additional exercise is needed to reduce the risks of childhood disease, and later adult disease that can be prevented through proper diet and exercise. The information derived from the study will play an important role in promoting the health not only school children, but also that of adults as well.
Barkley, J., Ryan, E. & Bellar, D. et al. (n.d.) The Variety of Exercise Equipment
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Behringer, Vom Heede, & Yue et al. (2010). Effects of resistance training in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 126:e1199.
Bergeron, M. (2007). Improving health through youth sports: is participation enough? New Directions for Youth Development, No. 115, Fall 2007. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Brenner, J. (2007). S, American Academy of Pediatrics Council on Sports Medicine and Fitness. Overuse injuries, overtraining, and burnout in child and adolescent athletes. Pediatrics 2007; 119:1242.
Derri, V., Aggeloussis, N., & Petraki, C. (2004). Health-Related Fitness and Nutritional Practices: Can They Be Enhanced in Upper Elementary School Students?. Physical Educator, 61(1), 35-44. Retrieved from EBSCOhost
Faigenbaum, A.D., Farrell, A.C., Radler, T., Zbojovsky, D., Chu, D.A., Ratamess, N.A., & … Hoffman, J.R. (2009). “Plyo Play”: A Novel Program of Short Bouts of Moderate and High Intensity Exercise Improves Physical Fitness in Elementary School Children. Physical Educator, 66(1), 37-44. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
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Meyer U, Romann M, & Zahner L, et al. (2011). Effect of a general school-based physical activity intervention on bone mineral content and density: a cluster-randomized controlled trial. Bone. 2011 Apr 1;48(4):792-7. Epub 2010 Dec 15. PMID:21167330. [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
Rivilis, I., Hay, J., & Cairney, J. et al. (2011). Physical activity and fitness and children with developmental coordination disorder: a systematic review. Research in Developmental Disabilities. 32 (2011) 894 — 910.
Rowe, P., van der Mars, H., & Sculdheiz, et al. (2004). Measuring Students’ Physical Activity Levels:Validating SOFIT for Use With High-School Students. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 2004, 23, 235-251
Sienkiewicz-Dianzenza, Tomaszewski, & Iwa-ska, et al. (2009). Anaerobic endurance of young untrained male and female subjects. Biomedical Human Kinetics. 1: 16-19.
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Tarnus, E., Catan, A. & Verkindt, C. et al. (2011). Evaluation of maximal O2 uptake with undergraduatestudents at the University of La Reunion. Advan in Physiol Edu 35:76-81, 2011.
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