There is one point of agreement, that the term ‘nationalism’ is quite common. Its earliest recorded use in anything like recognizable social and political sense is all familiar (Smith 12). No clear definition has been given to nationalism since. In brief and in summary of the various definitions, some say ‘nationalism’ means the process of formation or growth of nation, some claim it is the sentiment or consciousness of belonging to nation, while others state its language and symbolism of the nation and a social and political movement on behalf of the nation (commonly used). The definitions differ and are dependent on the source.
2.0 Paper’s Objective
Different scholars have made various discussions on the topic of nationalism. The paper aims to provide a short introduction to the concept of nationalism as perceived by Raymond Bosworth and the historical methods used by this scholar. Its purpose is to offer readers’ critical synthesis of much of the existing scholarship in the field as the author portrays or brings out the concepts. The tone of the paper reflects my own views on nation and nationalism (according to the book), and my primary concern is to traces those debates as argued by the Author and the techniques he uses to portray this. I hope also to convey something of the passion and complexity of the debates in the field of history (nationalism emphasized) as other book that the author cited explains. This will provide a clear framework for grasping the various authors’ contributions to the study of nationalism and the method that have been used to pass the message. My objective throughout the argument is to outline the key debates in the field as clearly as possible, and, also to offer my own ethno-symbolic account. I am conscious of the need to provide readers with the necessary information and arguments to follow them to make up their own minds. As well, while aiming for clarity throughout, I am concerned with revealing the full extent of scholarly divisions and disagreements about the phenomena of nations and nationalism as brought out by the author.
3.0 Author’s Argument
The core of nationalism is group-consciousness, the love of the community, great or small, to which we belong; but for the larger portion of the pre-historical and historical life of mankind such as love of our unit has been an instinctive emotion, not a doctrine. This is the major argument in the book. As patriotism is as old as human association and has gradually widened its sphere from the clan and tribe to the city and the state, nationalism as an operative principle and an articulate creed only made its appearance among the more complicated intellectual processes of the modern world.
4.0 Organization of the book
The book starts with the terms and concepts, outlining the main differences in approach to the definition of the key concerts such as ‘ethie’, ‘nation’, ‘nationalism’, and ‘national state’, and offering author’s own route through this minefield. Next, the author considers the ideology, or ideologies, of untrarist approach, as well as the vexed question of a ‘core doctrine’ of nationalism and this gives the reader the insight of the article.
The questions of discussion are them carefully brought out in the following chapter (chapter three). The basic divide amid ‘modernist’ and other approaches are clearly defined in this chapter. It then outlines the key features of the four main paradigms of explanation of modernism, primordialism, ethno-symbolism and perennialism revealing its theoretical interrelations.
Chapter four continues this discussion by showing how the key theoretical debates in the field over the role of ideology, rational choices, the modern state and the social construction in the genesis of nations and nationalism derive from these four paradigms and reveal their respective strengths and limitations.
The firth chapter relates various ‘histories of the nation’, modern, medieval and ancient to particular theories and their master-paradigms, and then argues for an ‘ethno-symbolic’ reading which links modern nations to pre-modern ethnies through myth, symbol, memory, value and tradition.
The prospects for nations and nationalism and increasingly hybridized identity as well as the utility of ‘post-modernist’ and constructionist understanding and cultural ethno-symbolic interpretation of the future of nations and nationalism are discussed in the last chapter.
5.0 Methods used by Raymond
5.0.1 Citing from other sources (secondary sources)
John Thomson pays close attention to the role of symbolic elements in the language and ideology of nationalism, and to the moral, ritual and emotional aspects of the discourse and action of the nation as discussed by other scholars. Very close references are made and some and he even quote some sayings from the articles. For example Bosworth says it isn’t sufficient to tie a given nationalist discourse to specific political actors or social groups, leave alone read off the former from the social position and characteristics of the book (p 54).
Nationalism has its own rules, rhythms and memories, which shape the interest of its bearers even more that they shape its contours, endowing them with a recognizably ‘nationalist’ political shape and directing them to familiar national goals. It is these rules, rhythms and memories of nationalism with which the authors is concerned, for they provide a bridge from the outer world of power politics and social interest to the inner world of nation and its characteristic concepts, symbols and emotions (Beswick, 19). This in turn shapes the way the author has structured the books argument.
The arguments revolve around the major, and the political, historical and sociological debates which he has fuelled. The debates are diffuse and wide-ranging. The author’s concern is not only competing ideologies of nationalism, nor even just the clash of particular theories. They involve radical disagreement over definitions of key terms widely divergent histories of the nation and rival accounts of the ‘shape of things yet to arrive’. The work has been cited from various books.
5.0.2 Direct quotations
The term nationalism, therefore, is understood here as referring to one or more of the three usages: a language and symbolism, a sociopolitical movement and an ideology of the nation. That each of these nevertheless presuppose some measure of national feeling, certainly among the nationalist themselves, if not the designated population at large, needs to be borne in minds; for it serves to connect the more active and organized sectors to the usually much larger, more passive and fragmented segments of the population. This was a direct quoting from Beswick. The author uses direct quotes from other books as well and this enhances clarity of the idea. This has been done carefully and considerably, taking the most relevant article. The clarity and approach given to the discussion enables the reader to have an insight of the ideas and views as portrayed by the author.
The language and symbolism of nationalism merit more attention, and their motifs recurred throughout these pages. Despite considerable overlap with symbolism, the language or discourse of nationalism cannot be considered separate as they are closely tied to the ideologies of nationalism as the book brings out (Floud 45).
The symbolism of nationalism, on the other hand shows such a degree of regularity across the globe that we may profitably extract it from its ideological framework. A national symbolism is of course distinguished by its all-encompassing object, the nation, but equally by the tangibility and vividness of its characteristics signs. Theses commences with the proper name choosing (Béland $ Lecours, 59).
Since the information originates from the indirect witnesses (as the books are further referenced), it becomes very hard to trace the original source of the information. However, the information is fully discussed and revised as the notion passed from one author to the other. He relies upon the articles fully. I would therefore consider these multiple referencing strong as information gotten from many scholars and hence the topic’s full coverage. He emphasizes on the source that base his statements. In some cases, where the primary source isn’t referenced fully, the author left. For example in the definition of nationalism, he purely used Roderick article. This gives the article special strength. The secondary source is the historian’s original sources. With the various articles and in depth topic discussion, the secondary source can be substituted for primary.
However, due to many referencing materials (as each book is also referenced); the former meaning of the word is lost eventually as every scholar chips in his notion about the topic. The strength of the former meaning therefore ceases.
Bosworth, Raymond. Nationalism: University of Michigan. Publisher Pearson/Longman,
Smith, Anthony. Ethno-symbolism and nationalism: a cultural approach: New York City:
Taylor & Francis Publisher, 2008. Print.
Beswick, Jaine. Regional nationalism in Spain: language use and ethnic identity in
Galicia: Publisher, Multilingual Matters, 2007. Print.
Béland, Daniel and Lecours, André. Nationalism and social policy: The politics of
territorial solidarity: University of Michigan: Publisher Oxford University Press,
Floud, Roderick. An Introduction to Quantitative Methods for Historians: New York City:
Taylor & Francis Publishers, 2009. Reprint.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH GRADE VALLEY TODAY AND GET AN AMAZING DISCOUNT