Shifting Classroom Learning to Online Learning: A Case Study to Transition From the Traditional Classroom-Based Program to Online CBT Format
The objective of this study is to examine the transition from the Traditional classroom-based program to Computer-Based Training. There are reported to be a great number of colleges and universities that are presently transitioning to Computer-Based Training and fully transitioning to “online, blended or web-facilitated courses.” (Keengwe & Kidd, 2010) The number of online programs and classes available have grown exponentially during the course of the last ten years. Other terms used to refer to Computer-Based Instruction include those stated as follows: “â€¦web-based training, e-learning, distributed learning, Internet-based learning, web-based instruction, cyber learning, virtual learning, or net-based learning. Online learning is a subset of distance education and embraces a wide set of technology applications and learning processes including, computer-based learning, web-based learning, virtual classrooms, and digital collaborations.” (Keengwe & Kidd, 2010)
In addition it is reported to take the form of course with access to content for “just-in-time” learning, access (Hall, 2000). This definition encompasses delivery of course content via all electronic media, including the Internet, intranets, extranets, satellite broadcasts, audio/video tapes, interactive TVs, and CD-ROMs. Online learning is focused not only on the online contexts, but also includes a full range of computer-based learning platforms and delivery methods, genres, formats and media such as multimedia, educational programming, simulations, games and the use of new media on fixed and mobile platforms across all discipline areas.” (Keengwe & Kidd, 2010)
It is argued by Campbell (2004) that the “emphasis of online learning in higher education settings is on the development of metacognitive as well as reflective and collaborative learning. Further, online learning goes beyond planned subject learning to recognize the value of the unplanned and the self-directedness of the learner to maximize incidental learning and improve performance.” (Keengwe & Kidd, 2010)
It is reported that a comparative study conducted by Dabbagh and Nanna Ritland explored the differences between “traditional and online learning environments” is that the traditional learning environment is limited by location and instructor and student presence and is presented in real time, under the control of an instructor and is a linear method for teaching. The following table shows the historical context of online distance education development from 1975 to the present.
Figure 1: Historical Context of Online Distance Education Development
Drill and practice;
Computer-assisted learning CAL
Behaviorist approaches to learning and instruction; programming to build tools and solve problems; Local user-computer interaction.
Use of older CAL models with interactive multimedia courseware; Passive learner models dominant; Constructivist influences begin to appear in educational software design and use.
Web-Based Education & Training
Internet-based content delivery; Active learner models developed; Constructivist perspectives common; Limited end-user interactions.
Internet-based flexible courseware deliver; increased interactivity; online multimedia courseware; Distributed constructivist and cognitivist models common; Remote user-user interactions.
2005 — present
Mobile learning and social networking
Interactive distance courseware distributed online through learning management systems with social networking components; learning that is facilitated via a wireless device such as a PDA, a smart phone or a laptop; learning with portable technologies where the focus is on the mobility of the learner.
Source: (Keengwe & Kidd, 2010)
As shown in the figure above the focus and characteristics of online education have changed with each era and evolved into what is known today as online learning. Barriers to online teaching and learning are stated to include such as “faculty time, rewards, workload, lack of administrative support, cost, course quality, student contact, and equipment concerns as barriers to online teaching practices.” (Keengwe & Kidd, 2010)
Research findings indicate that program leaders should “â€¦keep abreast of the technology issues; courses integrate more collaboration between instructors and learners; training be provided to faculty to overcome negative dispositions; leaders attempt to incorporate the need for distance education courses in institutions’ missions, and that a reconsideration of tenure and promotion decisions should be examined in an attempt to support faculty workloads.” (Keengwe & Kidd, 2010) Inadequate software and hardware as well as internet connections that are slow, procrastination of learners, “â€¦lack of technical expertise among the instructors, insufficient orientation for learners, and a lack of release time for instructors to develop and design their online courses have been cited as barriers to faculty participation in developing and teaching online courses.” (Keengwe & Kidd, 2010)
III. Overview and Summary of Current Training Program
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) offers distance education in the form of a Correspondence Study Program for technical, management and business skills training enabling individuals to work at their own speed outside the classroom environment. There are presently 100 courses that can be taken through means of distance education. The Federal Aviation Administration has a multi-disciplined approach to distance learning including the use of the following
(1) eLearning which is “is the ability to take online courses from any computer anytime, anywhere. No travel. No waiting. There is always a seat available for you in the virtual classroom.” (FAA, 2013)
(2) Aviation Training Network: This ATN is reported to make use of a video studio that is both “modern ad interactive” and to do so ‘in conjunction with a satellite uplink to provide a means for FAA and other government organizations to deliver cost-effective live training. The Academy’s Aviation Training Network broadcasts to more than 100 downlink sites throughout the U.S. including Hawaii, Alaska and Puerto Rico. This allows participants to attend training with very little travel time involved.” (FAA, 2013)
(3) Computer-Based Instruction (CBI)National Program Office is responsible for the distribution of over 250 courses on CD-ROM and internet to FAA facilities. The CBI Office supports and maintains a vast network of state-of-art multimedia computer platforms located throughout the FAA. Through CBI, FAA workforce skills are developed, maintained and enhanced. (FAA, 2013)
(4) Correspondence Study: Program offers technical, management and business skills training allowing individuals to work at their own pace outside the classroom. There are over 100 courses to choose from. (FAA, 2013
(5) Tech Ops Distance Learning Tool: allows authorized ATO Technical Operations employees to request all distance learning course materials. All ATO (ATSS) personnel can submit requests for Correspondence Study courses, subject to supervisory approval. (FAA, 2013)
IV. Applicable Guidance on regulatory training from FAA
The U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration National Policy 8900 is for the purpose of guiding “â€¦an introduction of operations specifications (OpSpecs) to Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 147, Aviation Maintenance Technician Schools (AMTS). ” (FAA, 2013) Reported as the primary audience for receipt of this notice is “Flight Standards District Offices (FSDO), International Field Offices (IFO), International Field Units (IFU), principal maintenance inspectors (PMI), and principal avionics inspectors (PAI) with AMTS oversight responsibilities. The secondary audience includes Flight Standards Service (AFS) branches and divisions in the regions and at Washington, DC, headquarters (HQ).”(FAA, 2013)
Facilities enabling student demonstrations or participation for instruction in general principles. Laboratory equipment required should match subject taught and teaching level. (FAA, 2013)
A hands-on assignment requiring skills taught at the 2 to 3 teaching level. Students involved in a practical project can use or research documents such as maintenance publications, FAA directives, or manufacturer data. (FAA, 2013)
Measures of a student’s manipulative skills needed to simulate a “return to service” condition of instructional or training aids. These aids do not need to meet “return to service” maintenance criteria. (FAA, 2013
AMTS instructors who are not FAA certificated mechanics, and who teach mathematics, physics, basic electricity, basic hydraulics, drawing, and similar subjects. (FAA, 2013)
Tools, such as tensiometers, micrometers, and torque wrenches, typically provided by the AMTS. These tools do not require calibration when used for demonstration or on non-airworthy equipment. (FAA, 2013)
Training resources are stated to include:
(1) personnel — training management and instructor and (2) Facilities — a central training location, off-site centers for learning and other geographic locations;
(3) Equipment including stand alone computers, networks, laptops and local area networks (LANs), or the web;
(4) Software — operating systems, browsers, learning content, or specialized programs; (5) Curriculum — videos, computer-based lessons, workbooks, study guides, CDs, DVDs, part-task trainers. Third party tenderers contractors and consultants and the classroom as previously described. (FAA, 2013)
Keengwe, J. And Kidd, TT ) (2010) Correspondence Study, CBI & OJT. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching Vo. 6, No. 2 June 2010. Retrieved from: http://jolt.merlot.org/vol6no2/keengwe_0610.htm
FAA Academy Distance Learning (2010) MY FAA Academy Distance Learing. Retrieved from: https://www.academy.jccbi.gov/distancelearning / http://jolt.merlot.org/vol6no2/keengwe_0610.htm
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