deviance refers to behaviors that are considered wrong or undesirable within a particular cultural context. Deviance is all over society — from the minor etiquette breaches that engender frowns or gossip to behaviors that require legal or psychological interference. However, what seems to be the real essence of deviance is that it elicits somewhat of a varying degree of negative response from a part of the dominant cultural group (audience), which then, in turn, elicits social control from that group to the individual. What is interesting is how much culture causes variation in deviance. Some people regularly deviate and are never punished, other mildly chastised, some given therapy, others are incarcerated. In the examples we review below, we will see that clearly a form of deviance exists — but to what degree, and to what circumstance society has chosen to punish and control are quite difference.
Our first example surrounds the broad concept of theft. Theft has been anathema in society from the beginnings of civilization because it does engender cooperation and positive feelings between members of society. But, as Victor Hugo was so apt to point out in Les Miserables, there are different degrees of theft. In Hugo’s case, the crime was stealing food for a starving child — nonetheless, punishment at the time was swift and severe — stealing was stealing; whether premeditated robbery of a store or an estate, or taking a cooling loaf of bread to avail starvation. In legal terms, theft is taking another person’s property without their permission or consent. Some countries see this as more serious than others, and have degrees to which theft is deviant. In much of the Western World, for instance, the idea of theft is based on intent (e.g. did one accidentally take a scarf from a coatroom at a restaurant instead of one’s own vs. The month long planning and execution of a bank robbery). Similarly, the Courts tend to look differently at theft depending on the degree to which it deprives someone of something valuable, needed, or unique and coveted, for example, in the Bernie Madoff Affair, in which thousands of dollars were stolen from individual retirement and investment account, thus depriving those individuals the ability to pay their bills. Now, in the age of the Internet, we are very concerned with such things as Identity theft and the use of our personal information for spurious reasons (Hoffman, et.al, 2009).
In our first answer of examples of modern deviance, we deal with a special type of theft called plagiarism. By definition, plagiarism is defined as the use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and submitting as an example of one’s own, original work (Random House Dictionary of the English Lanauge, 1995). Within the academic profession, plagiarism is considered academic theft, and therefore fraud and dishonesty. In journalism, it is considered a breach of ethic. However, most especially in this new information age of the Internet, plagiarism has become far easier to incorporate, and to check, and has enhanced the complexity of defining the problem (Clarke, 2006). However, our issue is even more complex because the alleged perpetrator is now dead.
Stephen Ambrose was an American historian most famous for his biographies of U.S. Presidents Eisenhower and Nixon. He was a professor of history at the University of New Orleans, but held numerous other academic positions. In 1998 he received the National Humanities Medial, in 2000 the Department of Defense medal for Distinguished Public Service, in 2001 the Theodore Roosevelt Medal for Distinguished Service, and an Emmy for helping to produce Band of Brothers (Historian Steven Ambrose, 2002).
Ambrose’s deviance arises from allegations that he had plagiarized certain passages from his books and fabricated stories of his involvement with famous political figures that aided his tenure and the publication of his books. The controversy is dichotomous: Ambrose acknowledged that, at time, he failed to quote certain material, but did cite it properly; and who is to say definitively, how much personal contact he had with dead political figures that was not in the form of letters or written controversies. Ambrose’s scholarly (journal, and peer-to-peer) works are not being questioned in the manner in which his popular accounts are, and in this words:
I tell stories. I don’t discuss my documents. I discuss the story. It almost gets to the point where, how much is the reader going to take? I am not writing a Ph.D. dissertation. I wish I had put the quotation marks in, but I didn’t. I am not out there stealing other people’s writings. If I am writing up a passage and it is a story I went to tell and this story fits and a part of it is from other people’s writing, I just type it up that way and put it in a footnote. I just want to know where the hell it came from (Kirkpatrick, 2002).
The conundrum for the layperson is that much of the controversy is hearsay. There are clearly passages lifted from other materials, but there are also footnotes indicating where those passages arose. When an author reads thousands of pages prior to telling a story it is difficult to completely ensure originality, which is what editors and plagiarism checkers are for. Was Ambrose deviant, or was his editor sloppy? Now that he cannot defend himself certainly the camps are dichotomous — and a great example of purported deviance for one group (the strict academics) and a yawn, if that from the regular person interested in history who wants a great story but never reads the footnotes. Indeed, what changes about the gist of the novels — extreme patriotism and a desire to bring lesser known stories to the popular press (Plotz, 2002).
On the other hand, Stephen Glass (born 1972) was a rising star reporter at The New Republic from 1995-98, when it was found that he fabricated quotations, sources, and events for a number of his stories — some of them-based entirely from his own brand of fiction. His story became part of a movie, Shattered Glass, and he now works for a California Law Firm as a Paralegal (Miller, 2011). Glass’ story is quite different than that of Ambrose. Where Ambrose cited his sources, but did not always properly quote them, Glass lied to his readers by fabricating stories that were not even close to reality. What they clearly share in common, though, is not just their own stretching of the complete veracity of prose, but bad editing.
Once caught, Glass had no compunction about admitting his lying. “My life was one very long process of lying and lying again, to figure out how to cover those other lies” in which he faked interviews, notes, voicemails, faxes, even Websites- simply whatever it took to pass the weekly staff meeting and get published. (Leung, 2009). His stories were insightful, timely, and almost too perfect for the publication to pass up — which is the likely reason it took so long to fact-check every detail in his tremendous volume of work.
Both authors certainly had a profit motive. Ambrose became one of the most prolific writers of American history in the later 20th century, turning out a book every other year and employing his family as full-time research assistants. Glass was a rising star and believed that he could only succeed if he continued to produce star-studded, unique material for his publication — and he loved the limelight.
These two issues are, at their heart, great examples of both the sliding scale of social deviance and the conundrum one faces when passing judgment. Are all lies? Did Ambrose lie, or did he typographically miss some materials unintentionally that his editors did not find? Was Glass on the path towards sociopathy? Were his editors, too, culpable in fact checking?
Clearly, while plagiarism is at the heart of both issues, the concurrent subject matter is not the same. Ambrose was telling stories of history and war in the popular press designed to be entertaining, while still including scholarly sources and giving credit to other scholars, which he did. Glass, while not really “hurting” anyone, did not, until he was caught, acknowledge that he was telling falsehoods. Yet, the two are considered deviant in the mind of journalists and scholars because they both “technically” plagiarized. One might submit, however, that intent was different between the two, as was the audience, the finished product, and the degree of deviance. One might also ask if the deviance spreads to the editors for both, and just how far we might carry the requirement of originality and presumption. One also might ask about the layers of audience and checks and balances. The public purchased Ambrose’s books not as doctoral dissertations with peer-reviewed credentials, but likely because they were history buffs who wanted another side of the story. With a cadre of research assistants, Ambrose was indeed responsible for his prose, but had others finding facts for him. Glass, on the other hand, worked for a publication that had trust with its readers that it would find the alternative story — the comments beyond the comments on sensitive topics. Yet instead, Glass had the savvy of knowing which way opinion was sliding, and simply say what most of the readers were already thinking. Had his pieces been billed OpEd, the discussion would be over. Instead, he mistakenly purposed his facts as just that, and thus moved from unbiased journalism to political and social pundit — certainly no guiltier of lying that most High School Paper editors, but certainly at a higher profile.
Both were, by the letter of the law, guilty as charged. Ethically, Glass deserves a solid slap for his sloppiness and laziness, thinking he actually needed to double quote certain sources rather than using his intellect and power of persuasion to document the ‘truth.” Or, does he deserve to be chastised for being sloppy, an even more egregious charge. For Ambrose, however, let the Bard tell a story, take the notes with a grain of salt if you wish to read them, and if you truly want verifiable facts, stock up on the No-Doze and read doctoral dissertations
Historian Stephen Ambrose Dead at 66. (15 October 2002). National Geographic News.
Retrieved from: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/10/1015_021015_ambrose.html
Clarke, R. (2006, 7-1). Plagiarism by Academics: More Complex Than It Seems. Retrieved from Journal of the Association for Information Systems: http://aisel.aisnet.org/jais/vol7/iss1/5/
Hoffman, S. And McGinley, T. (2009). Identity Theft: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Publishing ABC/CLIO.
Kirkpatrick, D. (11 January 2002). As Historian’s Fame Grows, So Do Questions on Methods.
The New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2002/01/11/us/as-historian-s-fame-grows-so-do-questions-on-methods.html
Leung, R. (11 February 2009). Stephen Glass: I lied for Esteem. CBSNews.Com. Retrieved from: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2003/05/07/60minutes/main552819.shtml
Plotz, D. (14 October 2002). Should Stephen Ambrose Be Pardoned? Slate. Retrieved from: http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/obit/2002/10/should_stephen_ambrose_be_pardoned.html
Random House Dictionary of the English Lanauge. (1995). New York: Random House.
Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?
- Plagiarism free papers
- Timely delivery
- Any deadline
- Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
- Subject-relevant academic writer
- Adherence to paper instructions
- Ability to tackle bulk assignments
- Reasonable prices
- 24/7 Customer Support
- Get superb grades consistently
Online Academic Help With Different Subjects
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
What discipline/subjects do you deal in?
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
What if I don’t like the paper?
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
- When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
- We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.
In the event that you don’t like your paper:
- The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
- We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
- Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.
Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
What if the paper is plagiarized?
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
When will I get my paper?
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
Will anyone find out that I used your services?
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
How our Assignment Help Service Works
1. Place an order
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2. Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3. Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4. Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!