The temporal needs-threat model provides that people respond to ostracism in three stages successively. These include reflexive, reflective, and resignation stages (Williams, 2009). The first stage involves a brief and immediate response to ostracism. After the reflexive stage the individual reflects on the meaning and importance of ostracism. This is the reflective or coping stage. After reflecting on the social exclusion, the individual develops responses to help fortify the threatened needs. At this stage, the individual becomes more aggressive to general people or the sources of ostracism (Williams, 2009).
223 participants participated in the study (200 females, 21 males, and 2 that preferred not to say). The was (M: 23 years, SD: 5.93). Sample level demographic information was provided, and participants were randomly allocated to one of the three conditions.
The paper used a quantitative research design. According to Basias and Pollalis (2018), quantitative research design involves an objective measurement as well as the numerical, mathematical analysis and statistical analysis of the collected data through either the manipulation of the collected data or the collection of the data through surveys, questionnaires, and polls. For this research, however, data was collected through a questionnaire. One of the characteristics of this research method is that the data has to be based on a large sample due to the reasons for ensuring that the collected data maintain some consistency. According to Mohajan (2018), because the secondary data tend to be collected from different sources and at other times, it requires that the researcher undertakes the measure, which will ensure that the process of data validity is achieved easily. Since this research investigates how ostracism impacts people, it requires data to be collected from various respondents, which can promise higher quality. Else-Quest and Hyde (2016) outline that most of the secondary data is usually of high quality, and thus it provides the researcher with an opportunity to replicate the results quickly. To that end, the paper depends on explanatory research. According to Babones (2016), “explanatory Research is conducted for a problem that was not well researched before, demands priorities, and provides a .” Although more research has been done on this topic, there is still less conclusive information and study, and thus explanatory research seemed much more appropriate. Haydon et al. (2018) add that explanatory research is important when the topic under research is not yet studied in depth.
A short 20-item questionnaire on a Likert type scale model to record the answers (see Appendix B), with a dependent variable of needs satisfaction and 3 independent levels (social and target ostracism and social inclusion). The study was between subjects and data was collected under group testing conditions; questions were derived from an original study by (Hales et al., 2018).
Individuals were asked to read the document and give consent to the experiment after, they were given access to complete an online questionnaire. This was individually carried out, and participants were told to read a set of questions followed by a response scale scoring 1 for disagree and 10 for agree (needs satisfaction scale). All participants were debriefed on the research and thanked for their participation; this study has had ethical approval.
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