Critical Appraisal of Psychometric testing of the Children’s Resourcefulness Scale by J. Zauszniewski et. al. (2010)
In the study, “Psychometric Testing of the Children’s Resourcefulness Scale,” authors Jaclene Zauszniewski and Abir Bekhet (2010) endeavored to test the validity and reliability of the Resourcefulness Scale in effectively and correctly measuring resourcefulness as a research construct. Focus on the resourcefulness concept stemmed from the fact that this trait in individuals ultimately determines the person’s ability to adapt to or cope with life towards adulthood constructively and positively. An important objective of the study is to determine whether the instrument will indeed measure resourcefulness accurately and consistently across different respondent groups with different demographics and behavior.
To test for both validity and reliability of the Resourcefulness Scale, the authors conducted statistical analyses and established associations between the Resourcefulness construct and its validity and internal consistency, respectively. The test for construct validity shall verify if indeed, the Scale accurately represents the resourcefulness concept given that the Scale has many statements / items that pertain to resourcefulness. Meanwhile, internal consistency will test the reliability of the Scale, whether the items in it will yield more or less the same results across each other even when applied to different respondent groups. The authors’ findings proved that indeed, tests for validity and reliability yielded values that are considered acceptable or within the acceptable range of statistical values. The text that follows will specifically discuss the results of the secondary analysis and statistical tests conducted to the Resourcefulness Scale.
Test for validity and reliability was conducted on a survey of female respondents, with a sample size of n=60, within the age group 21-65 years old. As reported, the survey used for testing was actually a secondary analysis of an extant study, and results of said study was reported independent of the psychometric done by Zauszniewski and Bekhet. Using the respondent group and sample size of the extant research study, the authors then determined statistically the strength of the instrument on a per scale item and general construct (resourcefulness) levels.
Test for validity through construct validity showed that the relationship between the Resourcefulness Scale and the measure quality of life yielded a significant correlation with a value of r = 0.38 (p < .003). While the value itself is considered “marginal,” the significant result generated demonstrates that the measure quality of life reflects the construct resourcefulness in the Scale developed. Further, corresponding value of r = -0.53 between the Resourcefulness Scale and depression cognitions validates that the former is the converse of the latter, and the moderate r-value and significant relationship yielded statistically illustrates that the Scale is an accurate enough measure of the resourcefulness construct (Zauszniewski, 2010:15). These findings also indicate that the hypotheses presented are directional, illustrating the type of relationship or association established between Resourcefulness and factors/dimensions representing it.
Reliability was tested using the internal consistency measure. Cronbach’s alpha test conducted showed that the Resourcefulness scale has an internal consistency of ? = 0.78, a value which is well within the acceptable range of values for this kind of test. Results of the test also showed that even if one of the eight (8) items in the Resourcefulness Scale, the Scale would still yield the same test value, proving that indeed, the Scale is reliable when tested on an inter-item or per-item level (Zauszniewski, 2010:12).
Results and values yielded from the validity and reliability tests generally prove that the Resourcefulness Scale is a good quantitative measure of resourcefulness. However, it is just as important to note that in addition to the significant relationships generated between the resourcefulness construct and its measures, the secondary analysis itself is a challenge for the authors who conducted the study. This is because an 8-item Resourcefulness Scale is more vulnerable to getting weaker validity test results, as statements are aggregated together to create more general, specific concepts that represents resourcefulness as a construct. However, the significant relationship that resulted from the analysis, as well as the two factor loadings generated from the factor analysis, showed the strength of the Scale (Zauszniewski, 2010:16). That is, its items are clearly defined and mutually exclusive — indeed, a valid measure of resourcefulness, useful for both academic and practical purposes (Hansen, 2005:167).
The strength of the scale, however, can also be weakened by one of the fundamental pillars of the tests conducted, which is the source of the data used for the secondary analysis. Since the study used for the psychometric testing only has a sample size of n=60 and is restricted to the respondent group of females aged 21-65 years old only, the results cannot then be as conclusive as the study would like to establish. A greater challenge for the authors and researchers is to conduct validity and reliability testing to a larger sample. This recommendation will ensure that the values and test results reported in the study will indeed be replicated and be further verified, perhaps with even more reliable and accurate statistical values. Moreover, the use of primary data sources — that is, data generated from a survey conducted by the authors — shall help determine the fidelity of the data and in effect, the results and values that will be generated from it (Burns, 2005:434).
Burns, N. And S. Grove. (2005). The Practice of Nursing Research (6th ed.). St. Louis: Saunders Elsevier.
Hansen, C. (2005). Experimental Psychology (5th ed.). CA: Wadsworth.
Zauszniewski, J. And a. Bekhet. (2010). Psychometric testing of the “Children’s Resourcefulness Scale.” Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 23 (3).
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