The issue of domestic violence is one that has far-reaching consequences to those who it directly impacts. For instance, children who are born into families where domestic violence is a problem suffer some effects of the vice. The involvement of children in cases of domestic violence has long been an issue that professionals concerned with childminding issues have wrestled with for some time. Professionals such as social workers, social scientists, child protection services, and law enforcement have collectively been at the forefront trying to reduce the impact of domestic violence on the children of the involved families. However, there remain issues, as evidenced by the two journal articles that this paper analyses.
The article is titled “The Management of Disclosure in Children’s Accounts of DomesticViolence: Practices of Telling and Not Telling”.
The article hypothesizes that, contrary to the view that children are passive bystanders in issues of domestic violence, they are capable of managing their accounts and tell their version of events(Callaghan, Fellin, Mavrou, Alexander, & Sixsmith, 2017).
Summary of Literature
The authors of the article review several literary works written on the subject. For instance, in support of their stance, they note that Callaghan (2016) presents the idea that policies concerning domestic violence view children as passive and silent instead of individuals capable of contributing to the process of problem-solving. Moreover, they cite the works of Weiss, who observed that children’s silence on domestic violence issues is not as a result of their inability to articulate their accounts but because of the emotional impact they endure. From this stance, the authors find a platform to stress their position that children should deserve a safe space to give their accounts in matters of domestic violence. In another attempt to prove their hypothesis, the authors review the work of Vetere and Cooper as published in 2005. In the review, the article notes that the papers of the above two authors point out the fact that coercion in the family and the threat of further violence is one of the leading causes of children’s silence and not their inability to articulate themselves. All the above works, as cited by the authors, are relevant to the issue because they all address the issue of children who witness domestic violence. I have learnt that the evidence of children being able to speak is overwhelming and that children should not be regarded as passive parties. However, the main question that remains unanswered in the literature review is that of how these impediments to children’s involvement in domestic violence cases can be addressed.
The article used qualitative research methods to conduct its research. The authors recruited the participants in the study from specialists in domestic violence who had data on children that have lived through the experience. To collect information from the children, the authors used interviews as their preferred method of data collection. The authors were so thorough in their explanation of the methodology part that they did not leave any part unaddressed.
The research found that the children interviewed were slow and suspicious while answering the questions concerning their experiences as witnesses of domestic violence. However, they found other means of communicating and expressing their accounts upon realizing that they were safe and could trust the interviewers. These findings supported the hypothesis formulated by the researchers because they confirmed that children were not merely silent witnesses in cases of domestic violence but can be trusted to provide their accounts.
In the discussion part, the article focused on three main points. They included availing different avenues to children to raise their voices, finding the best ways to get children to open up about their experiences, and the problem of choice versus coercion.
The authors published the paper under the heading “Parent-child aggression, adult-partner violence, and childoutcomes: A prospective, population-basedstudy.”
The authors formulated the following research questions to guide them through the research. The first question they asked was whether the occurrence of both IPV and PCPA has worse outcomes as compared to the exposure to either one. Secondly, they ventured to understand if one form of family violence is more predictive of adverse outcomes than the other. Thirdly, the research team wished to establish if there are relations between the types of family violence experienced andthe outcomes observed in the children in question. Finally, the authors asked whether the different responses exhibited by the children in question were functions of their age, gender, orSES(Maneta, White, &Mezzacappa, 2017).
Summary of Literature
On whether the two types of family violence had different effects on the children involved, the authors reviewed three works of literature. They found that, in all, different results emerged. All three articles showed that PCPA violence was associated with externalizing problems in the affected children, while IPV violence caused internalizing difficulties. In another article reviewed by the authors, PCPA violence emerged as the more dangerous of the two because it contributed more to both externalizing and internalizing problems in children who have experienced it. However, in a bid to understand whether the co-occurrence of both forms of violence has worse outcomes compared to exposure to either one of them, the authors found conflicting information from the articles reviewed. Other authors theorized that both forms of violence cause the same problems to a child as those caused by one. Concerning the relevance of the articles, they were all within the topic of discussion. The reason for that is because all of them provided the exact information that the authors wanted for purposes of answering their research questions. The most important lesson I learnt from the review is that both forms of family violence have adverse effects on the affected children and, therefore, require adequate measures to address them. However, from the literature review, there is one question I would like to have answered, namely, why do studies on whether both forms of family violence have the same effect as either one show different results?
The research used quantitative methods to acquire and analyze data. To obtain the data, the authors recruited participants from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighbourhoods (PHDCN). The methods used to gather the data was the Violence Tactic Scale, a type of self-assessment questionnaire where the participant chooses from three choices the technique, he/she used to solve conflicts in the previous 12 months. Despite their efforts to explain their methodology, I did have difficulties understanding some parts. For example, the statistical analysis methods they used to analyze the possibility of externalizing and internalizing as functions of age, gender and SES proved to be incomprehensible to me.
An analysis of the data collected showed that age was a function of internalization and externalization as symptoms of both forms of family violence. With age, externalization decreased while internalization increased. On gender, male children exhibited higher externalization symptoms than their female counterparts while no gender differences showed concerning the levels of internalization. On the tests done on the effects of cumulative PCPA, IPV on externalizing problems, cumulative exposure to both forms of family violence led to increased difficulties in the ability of the participants to externalize. When the researchers did the same tests with internalization as the subject, the results showed that internalizing behaviours increased with the presence of PCPA, IPV both individually and collectively. The above results answered the research questions satisfactorily because they revealed information that the questions sought.
One of the main points discussed is the fact that children who did not experience IPV or PCPA showed that, with age, externalizing symptoms reduced while internalizing symptoms increased up to the point of adolescence.The authors further discussed the fact that, in children that had experienced the two forms of violence, the same projection was maintained, but had pronounced effects. To further elaborate on this point, they noted that the decrease in externalizing with age was sharper for such kids and the increase in internalization was faster with age.
Callaghan, J. E. M., Fellin, L. C., Mavrou, S., Alexander, J., & Sixsmith, J. (2017). The management of disclosure in children’s accounts of domestic violence: Practices of telling and not telling. Journal of child and family studies, 26(12), 3370-3387.
Maneta, E. K., White, M., &Mezzacappa, E. (2017). Parent-child aggression, adult-partner violence, and child outcomes: A prospective, population-based study. Child Abuse & Neglect, 68, 1-10.
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