The Democratic Theory and the meaning of the concept of freedom

The Democratic Theory

The democratic theory was developed from the political philosophy that is mainly concerned in explaining the meaning of democracy concept, as well as its ethical basics, responsibilities, challenges, and the general desirability of supremacy. Generally, committing to equality is one of the subjects of study, and its debate is what unites other democratic theorists across various disciplines, and they shape our understanding of how the cities develop (Trounstine 883). In most cases, the commitment has been the key in the growth of democracy by allowing people to equally participate in various department of the firm, which later forms the urban area in where they are situated. The democratic theory argues that when its obligation takes the forms of a dialogue of the ethical practicalities and interest of democracy, the normative theory will automatically result. The theorists should concern the functioning of actual democracies as their philosophies are empirical.

Further, the democratic theorists cross-examine the meaning of the concept of freedom according to their conceptual work and semantic orientation. They help in the provision of inspirations, planning, and literature of art, which the future generation can adapt to become a lens that they observe their ancestors, discovering what they thought, felt, liked, and disliked. In the modern world, the theory of ideas can be manifested through its contributions to the development of cities, offering means of co-operation using shared traditions, cultures, and nationalities. Thoughts have also been a direct cause of horrible human crimes for millennia.  The current challenge is starker because liberal ideas themselves and specifically, the notion of freedom of speech are well-equipped for self-defence. With globalization across the world, the right to the city has formed a critical debate topic in the modern urban studies concept.

Democratic theory typically operates under various levels of orientations; for instance, they define democracy and provide a normative way in which justice should work. Most theorists affirm that the theory of democracy symbolizes some form of shared self-rule.  For instance, Henri Lefebvre emphasis the need to have city rights and community networks organizations in the US to help in launching the program (Steele 225). As much the theory of democracy burgeons concern in the rights to the urban settings to have been exciting and productive, it is a measure of theoretical dilating. The approach provides a contemporary initiate that the city can adopt to realize its set goals. Nearly everyone emphasizes the symbol of the user or resident of urban space. Many urban dwellers agree that it’s the daily experience of populating the town that entitles individuals to have the right to the city; instead of one country citizenship.  Hence, the importance of the user-value of city space to be over and above its exchange worth. Currently, the property rights in almost every urban settings in the world acknowledge the rights of inhabitants, and the exchange value of the property determines the way it is used. Thus, all forms of urban planning are guided by the power of ideas on the right to the city. For instance, impoverished societies suffer both from lack of wealth, and democratic deficit since being poor does not only imply not having capital but as wellbeing rocked by the winds of wealth with no skills of control. Democracy stands to be a developmental model as companies have been promoted to empower the community owing to their integrally democratic environment. Public participation is incorporated when planning for the demographic structures in the cities. The population of the urban areas should be designed well to cater for the social, economic, and political demands of people residing in it.

On the other hand, Marc Purcell discusses the impact of neoliberalism on metropolises in advanced entrepreneurial societies. Purcell, in his arguments, emphasizing the need for restructuring urban policies to have a logical operation and remove disparities between ideological discourse and real outcomes. Purcell expands his work of critique on geographical engagements with neoliberalism, where he explores methods of rescaling and rearrangement in the international economy. Through policy implementation, Purcell theorizes on the political goal of neo-liberalization, competitive market, and the retraction of the state.  Purcell expertly decouples dominant hegemonic linkages between democracy and neoliberalism, which has to influence the anti-essentialism of democratization (Steele 224).  The policies governing most cities of the world face challenges in developing radical democratization and radical equalization since both are embedded in the social movement model of agnostic. Hence, Purcell offers a much-needed assessment of the right to the urban and gives a constructive structure through which it can be set up to yield positive outcomes in societies.

Similarly, Edward Soja defends the idea that to achieve a better democracy; people should change the way they think about the social orientation and political organization of urbanized zones. Hence, people have to go for city regions instead of metropolises to help in overcoming challenges raised through a continuous urbanization process and repeated financial crises. The modern metropolis is changing dramatically, and there should be aware the city governors will adopt to shift from crisis generated restructuring to economic oriented geographical planning.

The ideas from the democratic theory have a significant application in the urban theory as it forms the social organization and human intervention for the overall practices in the cities. For instance, structural agency relationship enhances leadership that has a weak standard of responsiveness, which permits leaders to fail in satisfying the preferences of the general public. The urban theory has to form a dualistic understanding of the structural agency connection, which stimulates a substantial standard of leaders being responsible by meeting the goal of citizen’s preferences, and it can be achieved when democracy is given the priority (Beebeejaun 329-334). The metatheoretical argument on the accurate ontological and descriptive association between structure and agency are the foremost concern of democratic theory. Therefore, suburbanization and democratization relation rests under-theorized since the urban theory has gone through an absolute normative turn on the discussion of the rights to the cities. Democratization leads to spatial fairness, where some forms of neoliberalism are thought and presented more democratically. For instance, politics in urban and the subtleties of democratization can be agreed upon by drawing ideas from the self-confessedly normative style of radical theorizing. From the analysis of democratic theory, it tradition helps one to notice that discussion of urban theory is laid on egalitarianism, injustice, and city rights in geographical location.

Further, it is claimed that the theoretical disaggregation of the fundamental value of democracy takes on through the spatial turn, which reorganizes the evaluation of the democratic capabilities of borough politics. The theory of democratic and urban pursues in describing and explaining the relationships of power in contemporary society. For instance, the concept of the small minority who consist of people from the economic elites and policy planners hold more power in democratic election influencing the general setting of the urban region. Through democratic principles, it shapes the social groups in urban environments by contributing to democratic outcomes, which represents the interest of society.

Also, democratic theory can be applied in urban governance through policy networks to have all people inclusive in the system. For instance, policy networks and management in urban settings rely on democratic theories to locate ideas about possible consequences. Those policies that undermine the growth of democracy are restraints. The growth of new cities can face opposition due to political differences, and that is the reason why urban theory holds on policy planning. In the urban theory, governance through a network of policies forms new governing forms, and they are the relatively independent representing political system. The political system that is fragmented shows a problem for traditional representative democracy characterized by one elected political elite in control of all decisions in public matters. The idea of governance seems to have developed into a theoretical framework that helps in understanding the new form of management in postmodern societies and cities. However, the democratic theory has to be vested in the government as the traditional governing form. For instance, the ideas developed in the democratic theory on participation and dialogue when it comes to governance forms the basis of urban political decisions. The issue of common interest in these theories makes urban planning to be equally represented where the needs of the people are given the priority. Democracy in a radical urban approach helps in outlining the case for thinking about the relationship that exists between suburbanization and the political system. The theory of democracy has identified a tenacious propensity in urban theory to evade continued engagement with normative philosophies. Freedom reveals new practices of rationalization, which are essential components of social norms and helps in accounting the reasons for particular senses of injustices matter to specific individuals.

Moreover, democratic theory helps us to rethink the geographies of affectedness by showing the way the principle of transformation of all affected interest opens a space for bearing in mind the generative force of suburbanization in enlivening self-governing contention (Beebeejaun, 323-334). Hence, urban theory can be creatively conceptualized by having various roles in accumulating probable and affected societies using democratic ideas. Lack of democratic politics is termed as the root cause of social injustice and inequality when it comes to the allocation of resources in the city—engagement of democratic theory through spatial chastisements like human geography, city growth, and local planning. Urban studies are framed using a difference between the consensual alignments and deliberative democrats. The relationship between urban theory and modernity is a central idea in spatial assessment, human urban characteristics, and radical methods like Marxism, which can be defined through democratic theory. Metropolises and the evolution of informational markets, globalization, city growth mechanism, and urban administration theory needs people to participate in the decision-making process equally. Spatial expressions of disparity and thoughts of discrimination, urbanization are some of the significant concerns captured in democratic theory. The urban needs to be understood through intersections of horizontal and vertical of concurring resources, situations, locations, influence the way people make and understand experiences in urban settings. In the 21st century, it is undergoing a democratic revolution that is underpinned on the principle of equality, pervading all dimensions of social life, and erase the distinction in liberal theory.  The urban theory focuses on hegemony and socialist strategy as a self-contained political statement.

Criticism of democratic theory is grounded in the purpose of democracy itself, process, and outcomes since it has been associated with the rule of the people where the majority governs the minority. Although democracy brings some forms of equality in societies, there no particular outcomes that can be drawn from it. Political thinkers do not oppose the idea of democracy; however, they want it to be expanded to have a broader meaning. The theory has gaps in the way it is exercised, and the principles implemented benefit only a few people. For instance, some critics of democracy claim that it only benefits those who form the government. Democracy has been inconsistent, paradoxes, and limited in its operations, especially in modern societies that are defined through globalization; it faces many challenges (Trounstine. 879-893).The most critic form of democracy is that it was meant to produce representation and not the direct rule, which the American finds it hard to transitions.  Democracy should include an emphasis on the need to have a specialized society that maybe not compromised, not by capitalism. The general public is encouraged to take part in the political system in the state. The result of following democratic procedures is that policies formulated by the government will be more extreme through non-specialist ideas; hence, compromising its effectiveness. For instance, there should be nob guaranteed that those people campaigning for economies are professional; instead, it is a duty of everyone to champion economies’ policies. Primarily a government that is democratically represented should aim at providing well for the more significant number of which the theory does not incorporate the same in its arguments.

The theory of democracy makes a lot of assumptions on the local urban territorial dimension as the majority of government benefits more than the rest of urban dwellers. Cities should account for segmentation of human, which has to be superficial and transitory; however, through the democratic process, diversification of people are not considered. Geographical orientation of buildings in the cities forms the social life that enhances its development as people are free to do their business without policy restrictions. The democratic theory takes advantage of society’s illiteracy to impose them on policy implementation, which they even do not understand. In the end, the policy they pass becomes a burden while benefiting the leaders. The theory should have considered the idea of social control and accentuated friction in their arguments of heterogeneity stand. Increased mobility, political instability, and insecurity are stimulated when there poor governance within the urban setting (Steele, 224-225). The classical democracy idea has to be urban-centered; the expansion of the concept in contemporary times has lost its initial meaning because of state centrality. However, the primal link between the urban and democratic theory gas been lost. For instance, the indigenous government, in particular, the city has formed several aspects that strive detachment of power through a national scale. Also, the control of legitimacy to control violence due to regional differences is quite significant for modification, which has to apply the democratic theory. The sovereignty of the public institutions and the virtuous involvement of free and equal citizens is strengthened by those who reside in the town. Hence, town institutions are to liberate what people need to have in terms of governance and social practices. The dimension of local-urban salience should be based on the theorists of the idealistic kind of democracy, which lay the way the decision on policy formulation is conducted. The judgment of freedom and equality is what should the major arguments presented in the theory of democracy as participation in decision making is more inclusive.

However, having a high degree of the rule of law does not signify the proper functioning of democracy as it has to be bound on a specific development of the bureaucratic organization. Bureaucracy is essential to give a rationale for the effects of the extension of citizenship to help in solving coordination problems that are created through the development of markets. Therefore, to fill the gaps in democratic theory, there should be a specialized predictable public administration, which aims at achieving the importance of democracy. Political patronage needs to exercise their duties that emphasis on the regulation of public affairs by establishing rules, which allows citizens to very their legitimacy of the decision-making process. As a result, the complication of democratic structures makes the state of being investable since they are highly centralized on political organization.  The theory has to make assumptions that democracies bureaucratic tend to take place in non-democratic regimes. In the unitary state, the role of political administration has to focus on the decentralization process, which has to solve the current embedding issues in democratic theories. Therefore, political management forms entrusted to the local governments, which has evolved from various democratic countries to reduce features of centralization.

Works Cited

Beebeejaun, Yasminah. “Gender, Urban Space, and the Right to Everyday Life”. Journal of Urban Affairs, vol 39, no. 3, 2016, pp. 323-334. Informa UK Limited, doi:10.1080/07352166.2016.1255526.

Steele, Wendy. “Henri Lefebvre: Spatial Politics, Everyday Life and the Right to the City”. Urban Policy and Research, vol 35, no. 2, 2017, pp. 224-225. Informa UK Limited, doi:10.1080/08111146.2017.1291089.

Trounstine, Jessica. “Dominant Regimes and the Demise of Urban Democracy”. The Journal of Politics, vol 68, no. 4, 2006, pp. 879-893. University Of Chicago Press, doi:10.1111/j.1468-2508.2006.00477.x.

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