The implication of Krashen’s theory in learning the first language.

The implication of Krashen’s theory in learning the first language.

Krashen’s theory has a major implication in learning the first language. Central to Krashen’s theory is his distinction between learning and acquisition of language.

According to Krashen’s acquisition is a subconscious process while learning is a conclusions process; this is the first distinction Krashens gives about acquisition and learning. Those two components pay a major role in language competence. The acquisition is far important because through it, competence is developed.

The acquisition is responsible for generating language and thus accounts for language fluency competence gained through learning is also important; it can help in modifying language generated by acquired language competence. In other words, a student learning a second language can use learned rates to correct his language either before or after the moment of production.

Krashen’s theory of the second language has five main hypotheses that tries to explain how language is acquired. It consists of the accusation earning hypothesis.

  1. The monitor hypothesis
  2. The input hypothesis
  • The affective filter hypothesis
  1. The natural order hypothesis

The acquisition learning hypothesis is a hypothesis of Krashen’s that is widely known among linguists. According to Krashen, in this hypothesis is that there are two independent systems of foreign language performance, the acquired systems and the learned system. The acquired system is a product of subconscious process very similar to the process children undergo when they acquire meaningful interaction in the target language, natural communication in which speakers are concentrated not in the form of their utterances but in the communication act.

The learned system is the product of formal instruction, and it comprises a conscious process which results in conscious knowledge about the language for example knowledge grammar rules. In teaching t,here are two approaches i,.e. deductive and inductive. When the teacher uses deductive approach it produces learning and if he or she uses inductive it produces acquisition according to Krashen’s theory. This theory is important for a teacher because it helps in understating which method is best for students.

In most classroom learning is emphasized more than acquisition. In traditional classroom one of the things teachers say “pay attention” and they have students analyze and take notes on the now structure item in the lesson. Later students are given practice in providing correct answers either structurally or fractionally, but grammatical and lexical knowledge, consequently they are forced to study for the exams.

However in real life when we interact with speakers of our own language we rarely focus our attention on the from of the language the speaker use people  are concerned with what the speaker means or with the paralinguistic features of his speech. Example: gestures, signs etc with determine the quality of the message. In a classroom this hypothesis is important for a teacher because it helps the teacher to be aware of the pseudo- communicative materials. That teach language functions by using audio- lingual techniques for example:

  1. Talking about- occupation

P1- what do you do

P2 I am a doctor

  1. Talking about picture of a lawyer- p2- what do you do

P3- am a lawyer

Acquisition techniques are at least at present, more difficult to device than learning techniques, but in the run they are more effective. In this hypothesis Krashen gave a detail comparison of between learning and acquisition.

Learning Acquisition
Learning is a conscious process learning is a subconscious process
Learning involves knowing rules Acquisition involves piece picking up the learning
Learning results in accuracy formal Acquisition results in accuracy  and fluency
In learning traditional In acquisition formal traditional techniques does not help
In learning there is correction  In acquisition there is auto matic production.

 

The natural order hypothesis is another claim Krashen have about language acquire structural item in a predictable order regardless of the order of presentation. This means that according to this hypothesis Krashen claims that some structures are more easily acquired than other and the order of difficulty does not necessarily correspond with what we believe in on easy or difficult structures. For instance, one of the structural item that teachers teach in first in the language programs is the third person singular of the simple present tense. This order seemed to be independent of the learner’s age, L1 background, conditions of exposure, and although the agreement between individuals is not always perfect.

Krashen however points out that the implication of the natural order hypothesis is not that a language program syllabus should be based on the order found in the studies in fact in his book he reject grammatical sequencing when the goal is language acquisition. The natural order hypothesis also count for students mistakes and errors students make mistakes what is called “developmental errors” when the structure used has not been completely acquired. However students their product, thus correcting mistakes as they appear in their statements.

During any acquisition mistakes will always be present especially when dealing with the late structure consequently the best way to correct students mistake is to provide more input containing the structure in question this is according to Krashen’s view.

Krashen suggest that we present the language without any conscious effort to organize it on the contrary, he recommends a syllabus based on topics, functions and situations. The monitor hypothesis explains the relationship between acquisition and learning and defines the influence of the latter on the former. The monitoring function if the practical results of the learned grammar. According top Krashen, the  acquisition system is the utterance initiator, while the learning system performs the role of the “monitor” or the “ editor” the monitor acts in a planning, editing and correcting function when there specific conditions are met the conditions are as follows;

  • The second language learner has sufficient time at their disposal.
  • They focus on form or think about correctness
  • They know the rules.

It appears that the role of conscious learning is somewhat limited in second language performance. According to Krashen, the role of the monitor is minor, being used only to give correct deviations from “normal” speech and to give speech a more “polished” appearance. One of the advantages of this mode of production is that the speaker receives more input because the communication process is established. This hypothesis takes into consideration three kinds of monitor users.

  1. Over- monitor users- in this the learners who seldom trust their acquired competence, thus verifying every sentence the produce by using their learned competence such speakers are sure to speak hesitantly and with no fluency.
  2. Under- monitor users- in this learners who do not really care about correctness, only meaning matters. The kind of learners are usually very talkative even in their own mother tongue, and although they make more mistakes than over- monitor users, they  will also convey more meaning
  3. Optimal monitor users- those kind of learners according to Krashen they only use. The monitor when its appropriate e.g. when writing a speech or a letter. Optional users usually give the impression that they posses more competence than under- monitor users of the same level of accusation, because they can use their learned competence together with their acquired competence, and in many cases, uses their L1 grammar adapted with logical changes.

The input hypothesis in this hypothesis Krashen’s attempt to explain how the learner acquire second language and how second language acquisition takes place. The input hypothesis is only concerned with acquisition not learning. According to this hypothesis the learner improves and progresses, along the natural order when he/ or she received second language ‘input’ that is on stop beyond his or her current stage or linguistics competence for example,.

If a learner is at stage ‘’ then acquisition takes place when he or she is exposed to comprehensible input that belongs to level ‘I’ since not all of the learners can be at the same level of linguistic competence at the same time, Krashen suggests that natural communicative input is the key to designing a syllabus ensuring in this way that each ‘learner will receive some Li input that is appropriate for his or her current stage of linguistic competence.

Krashen state that from input to production there is a period when students do not produce any original statements. This no calls the silent period. Learners soon to need the silent period to internalize the information properly when this period is broken , learners area likely to develop a negative attitude towards learning the now language.

One of the problem associated with this hypothesis according to Krashen is that the length of eth silent period varies from learner to learn. Some learners have short period and start producing right after something has been preserved in class.

Others seem to take a long time to speak in class. At present it is difficult to cope with this characteristics of speakers; specially in school where terms are short and evaluation is required. In the future the evaluation system should be modified to give long- silent period acquires the opportunity to codify all the new input presented in each class.

Krashen believes the productive skills that is speaking and writing evolve from the receptive skills that is listening and reading and consequently they should be given much more emphasizes.

In this hypothesis Krashen recommends a roughly tuned inputs as opposed to a finely tuned input. In everyday conversation normally use all kinds of structures organizing our speech according to our communicative needs. Krashen claims that learners may start with a

Simple present, then answer question using a continuous tense, later carry on the conservation with a narrative in the simple past, including comments and advice using the conditional etc.

In language classroom, teachers select the language they use, not only simplifying their speech, which is natural but in most  cases using only the structures being analyzed at the moments this Krashen called finely tuned input” or roughly tuned input, on the other hand “cast a not” of  structures over acquisition, however that does not mean they cannot understand them.

The advantages of using roughly tuned input is that a language will sound more natural students will be exposed to a better kind of input and/ or and structures will be provided, then practiced and finally received. The optional input must be compressible interesting and / or relevant not grammatically sequenced sufficient in quantity and a little but beyond the students level of comprehension.

The affective filter hypothesis. This hypothesis embodies Krashen’s view that a number of effective variable play a facilitative, but non casual, role in second language acquisition. These variable include motivation itself confidence, anxiety and personality traits Krashen claims that learners with high motivation, self confidence a good self image a low level of anxiety and extroversion are better equipped for a success sin second language acquisition.

Low motivation, low self esteem, anxiety, introversion and inhibition, can raise the affective filter and form a “mental block” that prevents comprehensible input from being used for acquisition. In other words, when this filter is up it impedes language acquisition on the other hand positive affect is necessary but not sufficient on its own, for acquisition to take place.

According to Krashen understating a  message is not enough to assure language accusation, one must open to the message so that it reaches the language acquisition device intake not all the input  reaches the ALD somewhere along the way it is tired and only part of it is acquired.

Krashen claims that learners in a pleasant learning environment are able to get more in put to the land than those in unfavourable environment for learning.

This is why the hypothesis is very important for a teacher to apply it in classroom. Because with this knowledge the teacher will understand that environment plays a major role in learning in students life.

Krashen also suggests that the best way to achieve this language acquisition is allowing the silent period to take place within learners.

Another is by suing suggests techniques in the classroom.

For example using imagination to daydream situation they will lead into discussion using the target language. According to Krashen paper motivation is the best way to open the filter.

Krashen emphasis on the limitation of the monitor also suggests that teachers should present rules in the way that make them assets to apply, that eats down as much as possible on eth amount of mental activity. Necessary to remove and employ them this implies that teachers should not use contrast to teach features of English. According to Friedman he observes that it may seem eminiety reasonable to teach “it’s in contracts with its, but a students taught in this manner will forever associate the two and be forced to sort out the meaning of both choosing one similarly, contorting the plural –s ending of nouns with singular –s ending of verbs only complicate learners learning mood. This point is different fro many learners.

An extension of this principle is that only one variation of a rule should be taught at a time

A student whose papers are replete with the type of subject- verb disagreement will needlessly confused, not enlightened by a comprehensive lecture on all the rules for subject- verb agreement.

Krashen argues that instead of constructing by contracts it is often possible even when teaching for learning to blond inductive methods relying on acquired competence with overt rule teaching.

For example.

A teacher can present a passage written in the present perfect to a student who regularly omit the –e d ending of this form and then ask the student about the time frame conveyed by the verbs. If the student answers correctly the teachers can then point our the term of the verbs, particularly the –ed ending in this why the teacher lines the students acquired sense meaning with the standard from.

The students can practice the from by completing non- error- based exercises controlled composition exercises in which students change instances of one form through a passage to another form is simple push tense to present perfect it can also be effectively to have students write a paragraph or short paper on a topic that illicit the from just presented and then to ask them to  presented and then to ask them to underline and check for correctness all instance of the from.

According to Kranshen’s view the  study of structure of the language can have general educational advantage and values that high school and colleges students may want to include in there language programs and benefit according to him will greatly depend on the learners being already familiar with the language.

He also claims that it should be clear that analyzing the language, formulating rules, setting regulates,  part and teaching complex facts about the target language is not language teaching but rather is language appreciation, which does not lead to communicative proficiency. The only instance in which the teaching of grammar can results in language acquisition is when the students are interested in the subject out the target languages is used as a medium of instruction in the other word when the teacher talks and meets the requirement for comprehensible input and perhaps, with the students participation the classroom because an environment suitable for acquisition. Also filter is low in regard to the language of explanation, as the students conscious efforts are usually on the subject matte, on what is being talked about and not the modern. This is a subtitle point. In effect both teachers and students are deceiving themselves. They believe that it is eth subject matter useful the study iof grammar, that is responsible for the students progress, but in reality their progress is coming from the modern and not the message.

 

 

References

Krashen, Stephen. D. Principle and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Prentice- Hall International, 1987

Krashan, Stephen D. Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning. Prentice- Hall International 1988

Crstayl, David, The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language– Cambridge University Press 1997

Krashan, Stephen and Tracey. D. Terral. The Natural Approach: Language Acquisition in The Classroom Haywards CA: The  A Lemanycy Press, 1983

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