Personality psychology involves the observation of the concept of personality as well as how it differs from various individuals. Personality psychology focuses on the overall psychological makeup of the individuals, the similarities as well as the differences that are found within individuals as human nature. Personality can be described as a set of unique traits within an individual that works to influence their beliefs, emotions, motivations, environment as well as behaviors of an individual. Besides, personality can also be described as an ingrained pattern of behaviors, thoughts, and motivators. All these tend to develop throughout the life cycle of a person to influence their perception of the world as well as their beliefs, attitude, and self-perception. There are various theories that have been used to explain the various personalities that do exist within individuals, and they include trait theories, psychoanalytic theories, humanistic, and behaviorist theories.
The trait theories emphasize the psychological traits which are generally stable over a long period of time. According to the theory, the traits postulated tend to be a person’s patterns of understanding as well as dealing with the environment around them. The characteristics tend to be distinct for all the people, and thus, they tend to influence the people in different ways. The other major theory that can be used to explain personality is type theory. Type theories emphasize the analysis of a personality or how individuals are classified. The type theories, therefore, focus on the personality based on absolutes rather than in varying degrees on a continuum similar to the trait theories.
Psychoanalytic theory has also been used in the explanation of personalities. The theory was founded by Sigmund Freud and has been used to explain human behavior based on the interactions that occur between the different components of personality. The psychoanalytic theories of personality focus on the observation and analysis of the psychological conflict as well as its resolution. Behaviorist theories, on the other hand, emphasize the outside of an individual and therefore examines the manner through which the external environments, events, and interactions tend to influence behavior.
The social cognitive theories are also used in explaining the personality of a person. According to the theory, a person’s behavior is guided through the expectations as well as the beliefs that an individual possesses in regard to the world around them, especially the people that live around them. The humanistic theory is one of the theories used to explain personality, and to which argues that a person’s subjective free will is the most significant determinant of a person’s behavior. Humanists such as Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers are the founders of the humanist theory of personality and explained that individuals do strive to become self-actualized, and this implies that they want to be the best version of themselves. Through this, a person tends to do their best to achieve their best version, and this means working hard to be successful and gain respect from the society. As a result, what they do to accomplish their objectives is what defines their personality.
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