Production Engineering — Summary
The Petroleum Production System
In general, the petroleum production system must provider the means to fully exploit valuable energy reserves in widely variable natural environments in which they occur and to extract and transport their yield from the reservoir to the surface and thereafter, to production and refinement facilities. Three of the essential functions in that regard pertain to Inflow Performance, Well Stimulation, and Artificial Lift processes.
Inflow performance is typically represented by steady-state and radical flow reservoir schematics. The main objective of production engineering inflow performance is optimizing well productivity. Typically, variables such as temperature, depth, and the linear temperature profile are crucial. Calculations must account for various movement patterns, including bubble flow, chum flow, and slug flow rates.
The objective of well stimulation, in principle, is to maximize flow rate by reducing wellbore pressure. The Matrix Acidizing process is used to dissolve rock material, create new flow paths, maximize permeability in the wellbore area, and to remove mud and clay generated by drilling operations. Hydraulic Fracturing is useful in tight rock formations. It increases flow conduit by promoting permeability, increases wellbore area flow, and it provides the opportunity to employ what is known as the frac-pack control technique.
The pressures attributable to hydraulic fracturing cause tensile failure within the rock formation, producing fractures of a lineal nature. Those fractures are subsequently filled with proppant; in carbonate reservoirs, acid is used to etch a flow path. Ideal fracture geometry differs depending on the relative permeability conditions. Reservoir length is the most important dimension in low-permeability reservoirs, whereas reservoir width is more important in high-permeability reservoirs.
In general, the objective of artificial lift processes is to reduce the bottom hole flow pressure by increasing the flow rate. The Gas Lift method relies on gas compressor systems controlled by valve systems and produces oil and gas at the surface. Beam pumping has been used in its most conventional form, relies on gravity-based beam pumping units used by the industry since the 19th century. Various more modern forms of beam pumping systems include unitorque, air-balanced, and low-profile pumping unit configurations.
More recently, the electrical submersible method was developed and it can be advantageous in various operational environments and conditions. More particularly, electrical submersible pumps can lift high volumes of product at lower cost per volume; they are simpler to operate; and have much smaller and less obtrusive profiles above the surface. Conversely, this method (obviously) depends on the availability and affordability of electric current and at high voltages and it is generally limited to a maximum reservoir depth of 10,000-foot depth. Other limitations and potential complications that must be considered are potential problems caused by the electric cable, limitations in the maximum casing size, and flow problems caused by gaseous and solid materials.
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