Used Planet Global History Summary
Used planet a global history by Erie stipulates that the patterns and processes of terrestrial ecosystems have been altered by human populations and land usage, resulting in massive worldwide shifts. According to the author, Biogeochemistry, biodiversity, geomorphological processes, climate, and other human-induced changes in the environment are behind this development. Alterations to the Earth’s system in the article have been postulated to begin a new geological period. The Anthropocene caused by human activity is shown to be destructive. The author of the article poses the question concerning the lack of restraint in the recent creation efforts and identifies that it would pose a threat to people, the ecosystem, and the planet as a whole. In this article, this concept is tested by evaluating whether humanity is responsible for global warming.
The author uses the phenomenon of land usage to illustrate human activity and currently accelerating processes. Erik, in the article, reveals that extensive evidence from archaeology and other disciplines like paleoecology and environmental history indicate that hunting is a direct method by which humans modify terrestrial ecosystems. Forage, land clearance, farming, and agricultural activities certain acts have had a great effect on others. Since the late Pleistocene, at the very least megafaunal extinctions, invasions of new species, soil erosion, and other long-term effects of forest clearance. Issues such as food security have been identified in the article to be the reason behind most . Therefore, Erik uses this theory to identify the consequence of historical land use and compares it with the modern use of less arable land.
Erik begins by creating the quantitative land modeling to present the spatial land use in the 1970s, identified in the article as the Holocene period. Through the authors’ effort, the correlation of land use reconstructions stipulates that modern maps are created through satellite imaging while the prehistoric spatial periods utilize global datasets. The author uses the study of different models that seek to explain the land use during the Holocene. Erik employs the land-use intensification theory by T. Ester Boserup to explain increasing levels of agricultural output in traditional smallholder agriculture coupled with higher population densities.
The author, as the adoption of more in response to demographic, social, and economic pressures is referred to as “land-use intensification.” Erik stipulates the increased population relates to less land use. The author identifies the three phases and postulates that the production crisis is the fate of the theory. Erik reveals in the article to increase the local supply of food for plants and game animals, hunters and gatherers have been known to intentionally start fires to build and , which are typically more productive than undisturbed ecosystems. The pre-Columbian Amazonian wet tropical forests and the mesic ecosystems of New Zealand may have both been significantly altered by deliberate fire, as presented in the article.
Efforts by Erik to explain the adaptive intensification of the early Holocene reveal that even while pre-agricultural methods for ecosystem engineering had significantly lower productivity than agricultural technologies, they nonetheless allowed human populations to rise beyond the capacity of unmodified ecosystems to support them. Land-use practices became more intense with population growth, or people moved to less populated places, such as unexplored wildlands, in the early Holocene. The author identifies ecosystem transformation and climate change as a consequence of . Regarding climate change, Erik reveals that Biogeochemical and biogeophysical feedbacks between land use and the atmosphere can have both positive and negative impacts on regional and global climate, with the latter occurring when land is abandoned and reforested, or other vegetation is reintroduced in its natural state. According to the Early Anthropogenic Supposition (108), the article reveals that land clearance and other agricultural activities were responsible for CO2 and CH4 rises in the mid-Holocene period.
Therefore, according to Erik, the historical land use resulted in ecosystem transformations. The article reveals that modern land use is not an exception despite its minimal land use as it would still cause acceleration of negative effects on the environment.
1. What is the two quantitative global modeling of land use during prehistorical periods and the Holocene period?
2. What events during the Holocene period support the hypothesis that the effects on the ecosystem?
Ellis, E. C., Kaplan, J. O., Fuller, D. Q., Vavrus, S., Goldewijk, K. K., & Verburg, P. H. (2013). Used planet: A global history. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(20), 7978-7985.
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